Laporan Pertama di Sulawesi Selatan: Karakter Morfologi dan Molekuler Nematoda Puru Akar yang Berasosiasi dengan Akar Padi di Kabupaten Wajo, Sulawesi Selatan

https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.33108

Hishar Mirsam(1*), Fitrianingrum Kurniawati(2)

(1) Program Studi Agroteknologi, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Cokroaminoto Palopo Jln. Lamaranginang Kampus II UNCP, Palopo, Sulawesi Selatan 91911
(2) Departemen Proteksi Tanaman, Fakultas Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor Jln. Meranti, Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor, Jawa Barat 16680
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Root Knot Nematode (RKN) is one of the most important cosmopolite parasitic nematode species. Reports on RKN associated with rice root in Indonesia are still limited in West Java and Yogyakarta. This study aimed to identify the RKN associated with rice root in Sub-district of Bola, District of Wajo, South Sulawesi, based on morphological and molecular characters. Sampling was carried out by purposive method based on specific criteria of sample, i.e. root knot. Identification of root knot nematode (RKN) infestation in field was done by observing the primary and secondary symptoms. Morphological identification was carried out based on characters of juvenile 2 and the female perineal pattern. Molecular identification was based on amplification of r-DNA by polymerase chain reaction technique using primers rDNA2 and rDNA 1.58s. RKN were detected associated with the incidence of root knot in rice plant. RKN was identified as Meloidogyne graminicola based on morphological characters of juvenile 2 and the female perineal pattern. PCR using primer rDNA 2 / rDNA 1.58s successfully amplified a DNA band of RKN of ± 500 bp. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that RKN isolated from Wajo was closely related to M. graminicola isolated from Nepal, China, India, Madagascar, and USA with homology of 98.1–100.00%.

 

Intisari

Nematoda puru akar (NPA) merupakan salah satu jenis nematoda parasit penting yang bersifat kosmopolit. Laporan NPA yang berasosiasi dengan akar tanaman padi di Indonesia masih terbatas di Jawa Barat dan Yogyakarta. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi NPA yang berasosiasi dengan akar tanaman padi di Kabupaten Wajo, Sulawesi Selatan berdasarkan karakter morfologi dan molekuler. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara purposif dengan memilih sampel berdasarkan pada kriteria gejala spesifik penyakit puru akar. Identifikasi serangan dilakukan dengan mengamati gejala primer dan gejala sekunder. Identifikasi morfologi dilakukan dengan pengamatan karakter morfologi juvenil 2 dan pola perineal NPA betina.Identifikasi molekuler dilakukan dengan teknik polymerase chain reaction (PCR) untuk mengamplifikasi wilayah internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) menggunakan pasangan primer rDNA2 dan rDNA1.58s. NPA ditemukan berasosiasi dengan akar tanaman padi yang memperlihatkan gejala puru akar. NPA diidentifikasi sebagai Meloidogyne graminicola berdasarkan karakter morfologi juvenil 2 dan pola perineal NPA betina. PCR menggunakan primer rDNA2/ rDNA1.58s berhasil mengamplifikasi pita DNA NPA dengan ukuran sekitar 500 bp. Analisis runutan nukleotida menunjukkan isolat NPA asal Wajo-Indonesia memiliki tingkat kekerabatan yang sangat dekat dengan isolat M. graminicola asal Nepal, Cina, India, Madagaskar, dan Amerika Serikat dengan nilai homologi berkisar 98,1–100,0%.


Keywords


juvenile 2; Meloidogyne graminicola; nucleotide; perineal pattern

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.33108

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