Race and Virulence Determination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Isolates from Sidomulyo Village of Bantul, Yogyakarta

https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.26283

Herika Novrelly Jayatri(1*), Christanti Sumardiyono(2), Arif Wibowo(3)

(1) Balikpapan Agricultural Quarantine Office Jln. Yos Sudarso No. 92, Balikpapan 76111
(2) Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jln. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jln. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Banana is one of the important fruit crop in Village of Sidomulyo, Bantul, Yogyakarta. One of important diseases which become the constraint in development of banana is Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). This fungus has high race diversity and  virulence, so that it required early detection for prevention and control of disease. This experiment was aimed to figure out race and virulence of Foc isolates from Village of Sidomulyo, Bantul, Yogyakarta. The 13 tested isolates were isolates of PR11, PKJ20, RU20, PR30, AH40, PKJ40, A41, RB42, PR43, RU51, A60, RP60, and A80. Race was molecularly detected using two types of primers, i.e. General Foc primer FocEf3 and specific primer for race 4 (Foc-1/Foc-2). Virulence test was performed on banana seedlings of Ambon Kuning cultivar using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 14 treatments and 4 repetitons. The observed parameters were external and internal symptoms, calculation of disease severity index and disease intensity. Data were analyzed using variance and further test of Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5 % level. The results showed that all isolates were Foc and 9 of 13 isolates were grouped into race 4, i.e. A80, RP60, PR11, A41, AH40, PKJ40, PR30, RB42, and PR43. The highest and lowest virulences were consecutively expressed by PR30, RB42, RU51, RP60, PR43, PKJ40, PR11, A41, AH40, RU20, PKJ20, A60, and A80, with severity index on leaves and rhizomes ranging 1.61-2.91 and 2.25-7, respectively.

 

Intisari

Pisang merupakan tanaman buah unggulan di Desa Sidomulyo Kecamatan Bambanglipuro, Kabupaten Bantul. Salah satu penyakit penting yang menjadi kendala dalam pengembangan pisang adalah layu fusarium yang disebabkan oleh jamur Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). Jamur ini memiliki keragaman ras dan virulensi yang tinggi, sehingga deteksi dini diperlukan untuk pencegahan dan pengendalian penyakit. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui ras dan virulensi isolat Foc asal Desa Sidomulyo, Kecamatan Bambanglipuro, Kabupaten Bantul. Isolat yang diuji sebanyak 13 isolat, yakni isolat PR11, PKJ20, RU20, PR30, AH40, PKJ40, A41, RB42, PR43, RU51, A60, RP60, dan A80. Pengujian ras secara molekuler dengan menggunakan dua jenis primer yakni primer Foc in general FocEf3 dan primer spesifik ras 4 Foc-1/Foc-2. Uji virulensi pada bibit kultivar ambon kuning dengan menggunakan Racangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) yang terdiri dari 14 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan. Parameter yang diamati berupa pengamatan gejala luar dan gejala dalam, penghitungan indeks keparahan penyakit dan intensitas penyakit. Analisis data menggunakan sidik ragam dan uji lanjut Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) pada taraf 5 %. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa semua isolat merupakan isolat Foc dan dari 13 isolat yang digunakan terdapat 9 isolat yang merupakan ras 4 yakni isolat A80, RP60, PR11, A41, AH40, PKJ40, PR30, RB42, dan PR43. Isolat yang memiliki virulensi tertinggi sampai terendah berturut-turut adalah PR30, RB42, RU51, RP60, PR43, PKJ40, PR11, A41, AH40, RU20, PKJ20, A60, dan A80, dengan indeks keparahan pada daun berkisar 1,61−2,91 dan indeks keparahan pada bonggol 2,25−7.


Keywords


banana; Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense; race; virulence

Full Text:

PDF (English)


References

Agrios, G.N. 2005. Plant Pathology, 5thEd. Elsevier Academic Press Publication, USA. 922 p.

Badan Ketahanan Pangan dan Pelaksana Penyuluhan (BKP3). 2016. Program Penyuluhan Pertanian Perikanan dan Kehutanan BP3K Bambanglipuro Kabupaten Bantul, Bantul. 53 p.

Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS). 2016. Daftar Isian Kecamatan Triwulan dan Tahunan Tanaman Buah-Buahan dan Sayuran Tahunan (SPH-BST), Tanaman Hias (SPH-TH), Tanaman Biofarmaka (SPH-TBF) dan Perbenihan Hortikultura (SPH-BN) Kecamatan Bambanglipuro Kabupaten Bantul.

Bentley, S., K.G. Pegg, N.Y. Moore, R.D. Davis, & I.W. Buddenhagen. 1998. Genetic Variation among Vegetative Compatibility Groups of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Analyzed by DNA Fingerprinting. The American Phytopathological Society 88: 1283−1293.

Dong, X., N. Ling, M. Wang, Q. Shen, & S. Guo. 2012. Fusaric Acid is a Crucial Factor in the Disturbance of Leaf Water Imbalance in Fusarium-Infected Banana Plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 60: 171−179.

Dong, X., Y. Xiong, N. Ling, Q. Shen, & S. Guo. 2014. Fusaric Acid Accelerates the Senescence of Leaf in Banana when Infected by Fusarium. World Journal Microbiology and Biotechnology 30: 1399−1408.

Ghag, S.B., U.K.S. Shekhawat, & T.B. Ganapathi. 2015. Fusarium Wilt of Banana: Biology, Epidemio-logy and Management. International Journal of Pest Management 61: 250–263.

Groenewald, S. 2005. Biology, Pathogenecity, and Diversity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Science. University of Pretoria. Pretoria. 158 p.

Hermanto, C., A. Susanto, Jumjunidang, Edison Hs., J.W. Danniels, W. Oneil., V.G. Sinohin, A.B. Molina, & P. Taylor. 2011. Incidence and Distribution of Fusarium Wilt Disease in Indonesia. International Symposium Holticulture Science. Global Perspective on Asian Challenges. Guangzhou- China. Acta Horticulturae 897: 14–18.

Hermanto, C., Jumjunidang, R.P. Yanda, & N. Nasir. 2013. Virulence Test of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Isolates in Vegetative Compatibility Group Complex 0124 on Banana [Uji Virulensi Isolat Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense dalam Vegetative Compatibility Group Complex 0124 pada Tanaman Pisang]. Jurnal Hortikultura 23: 372−378.

Jeger, M.J., S. Eden-Green, J.M. Thresh, A. Johanson, J.M. Waller, & A.E. Brown. 1995. Banana Diseases p. 317−381. In S. Gowen, (ed.), Bananas and Plantains. Chapman & Hall, London.

Jumjunidang, C. Hermanto, & Riska. 2011. Virulence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense VCG 01213/16 on Banana cv Barangan from Different Banana Varieties and Locations [Virulensi Isolat Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense VCG 01213/ 16 pada Pisang Barangan dari Varietas Pisang dan Lokasi yang Berbeda]. Jurnal Hortikultura 21: 145−151.

Jumjunidang, Edison, Riska, & C. Hermanto. 2012. Fusarium Wilt Disease on Banana in NAD Province: Distribution and Identification of Isolates through Vegetative Compatibility Group Analysis [Penyakit Layu Fusarium pada Tanaman Pisang di Propinsi NAD: Sebaran dan Identifikasi Isolat Berdasarkan Analisis Vegetative Compatibility Group]. Jurnal Hortikultura 22: 164−171.

Kiswanti, D., Suryanti, & C. Sumardiyono. 2010. Identification and Virulence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Race 4 [Identifikasi dan Virulensi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Ras 4]. Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia 16: 28−32.

Kuswinanti, T., Baharuddin, & R. Halide. 2011. Race Determination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Using Virulence Test on Four Banana Cultivars [Penentuan Ras Isolat Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Melalui Uji Virulensi pada Empat Varietas Pisang (Musa spp.) Diferensial]. Jurnal Fitomedika 8: 29−32.

Lin. Y.H., J.Y. Chang, E.T. Liu, C.P. Chao. C.J. Chang. J.W. Huang, & P.F.L. Chang. 2009. Development of a Molecular Marker for Specific Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Race 4. European Journal Plant Pathology. 123: 353−365.

Mak, C., A.A. Mohamed, K.W. Liew, & Y.W. Ho. 2004. Early Screening Tehnique for Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Banana Micro-propagated Plants. http://www/Fao.org/docrep/007/ae216e/ ae216eOK.htm.Banana.Improvement, modified 21/1/17.
Moore, N.Y., S. Bentley, K.G. Pegg, & D.R. Jones. 1995. Fusarium Wilt of Bananas. Musa Disease Fact Sheet no. 5. INIBAP, France. 4 p.

Nasir, J., Jumjunidang, & Riska. 2005. Detection and Mapping of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense on the Potential Area for Banana Agribusiness Development in Indonesia [Deteksi dan Pemetaan Distribusi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense pada Daerah Potensial Pengembangan Agribisnis Pisang di Indonesia]. Jurnal Hortikultura 5: 50−57.

Pariaud, B., V. Ravigne, F. Halkett, H. Goyeau, J. Carlier, & C. Lannou. 2009. Aggressiveness and its Role in the Adaptation of Plant Pathogens. Plant Pathology 58: 409−424.

Ploetz, R. C. 2000. Panama Disease : A Classic and Destructive Disease of Banana. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2000-1204-01-HM http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/management/bananapanama/. modified 21/1/17.

Ploetz, R. C. 2006. Fusarium Wilt of Banana is Caused by Several Pathogens Referred to as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Phytopathology 96: 653−656.

Ploetz, R.C. 2015. Fusarium Wilt of Banana. Phytopathology 105: 1512−1521.

Purwanti, R.D., N. Hidayah, Sudjindro, & Sudarsono. 2008. Inoculation Methods and Conidial Densities of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense in Abaca. Hayati Journal of Biosciences 15: 1−7.

Riska, Jumjunidang, & C. Hermanto. 2012. Relation between Concentration Level of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense VCG 01213/16 and the Disease Development on Susceptible Banana [Hubungan antara Tingkat Konsentrasi Inokulum Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense VCG 01213/16 dengan Perkembangan Penyakit Layu pada Kultivar Pisang Rentan]. Jurnal Hortikultura 22: 155−163.

Semangun, H., 2000. Penyakit-Penyakit Tanaman Hortikultura di Indonesia. Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta. 850 p.

Su, H. J., S.C. Hwang, & W.H. KO. 1986. Fusarial Wilt of Cavendish Bananas in Taiwan. Plant Disease 70: 814−818.

Subandiyah, S. 2003. Cara Kerja Ekstraksi DNA Menggunakan CTAB. Workshop and Training Course on Molecular Detection for Plant and Environmental Protection. Faculty of Agriculture Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta, December 15–20, 2003.

Sumardiyono, C., S.M. Widyastuti, & Y. Assi. 2001. Pengimbasan Ketahanan Pisang terhadap Penyakit Layu Fusarium dengan Pseudomonas fluorescens. p. 257−259. Prosiding Kongres Nasional XVI dan Seminar Ilmiah Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia. Bogor, August 22−24, 2001.

Visser, M., T. Gordon, G. Fourie, & A. Viljoen. 2010. Characterization of South African Isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense from Cavendish Bananas. African Journal of Plant Science 106: 1−6.

Wibowo, A., Suryanti, & C. Sumardiyono, 2001. Patogenisitas 6 Isolat Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Penyebab Penyakit Layu Fusarium pada Pisang. Kongres XVI dan Seminar Nasional PFI. Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor, August 22−24, 2001.

Wibowo, A., S. Subandiyah, C. Sumardiyono, L. Sulistyowati, P. Taylor, & M. Fegan. 2007. Diversity of Race 4 of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense Strains from Indonesia, p. 89−90. In Y. B. Sumardiyono, S. Hartono, Mulyadi, T. Arwiyanto, A.Widiastuti, T. Joko, & R. Kasiamdari (eds.), Proceedings the 3rd Asian Conference on Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, August 20−24, 2007.

Widinugraheni, S., J.N. Sánchez, L. van der Does, F.G. Bastidas, N. Ordonez, G. Kema, C. Kistler, & M. Rep. 2015. Is SIX1 an Effector in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp cubense Banana Interaction? DOI:10.13140/RG.2.2.31112. 42246. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/ 307560221_Is_SIX1_an_effector_in_the_Fusarium_oxysporum_fsp_cubense_-_banana_interaction, modified 8/3/17.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.26283

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 930 | views : 532

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2018 Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Accredited Journal, Based on Decree of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia Number 30/E/KPT/2018, Vol. 21 No. 1 the Year 2017 - Vol. 25 No. 1 the Year 2021. Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia ISSN 1410-1637 (print), ISSN 2548-4788 (online) is indexed by: :