The Role of Turnera subulata and Cosmos sulphureus Flowers in the Life of Anagrus nilaparvatae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.24806

Wiwik Sugiharti(1*), Y. Andi Trisyono(2), Edhi Martono(3), Witjaksono Witjaksono(4)

(1) Directorate of Food Crop Protection, Ministry of Agriculture Jln. AUP Pasar Minggu, South Jakarta 12520
(2) Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jln. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jln. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281
(4) Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jln. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Anagrus nilaparvatae is a potential egg parasitoid to control the rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stal.) The parasitoid needs to consume suitable food to maximize its biotic potential and parasitizing ability. This study was aimed to determine the benefits provided by the presence of Turnera subulata and Cosmos sulphureus flowers on the life of A. nilaparvatae. This study consisted of two experiments. The first experiment was designed to determine the effects of the tested flowers on the parasitism and hatching rate of A. nilaparvatae on N. lugens eggs. The flowers were set inside the rearing cage of parasitoid in the presence of N. lugens eggs in Ciherang rice seedlings. In addition, honey and the control (no feed added) were included into the treatments, totalling of four treatments. The parasitism rate of A. nilaparvatae fed with the flowers or honey was similar to those unfed. However, the hatching rate of A. nilaparvatae was much higher on those fed with flower or honey than those unfed. The number of A. nilaparvatae unable to eclose from eggs of N. lugens for the unfed parasitoid was 37.4% in comparison with 8.19 to 15.67% for those fed with flower or honey. The second experiment was a follow-up to address the question on the fitness of progeny of A. nilaparvatae fed with the tested flowers. The flowers and honey did not increase the longevity of A. nilaparvatae progeny. However, A. nilaparvatae fed with flowers or honey produced progeny that resulted in higher number of offspring compared to those unfed. C. sulphureus flower significantly increased the number of offspring produced by A. nilaparvatae. This suggest that the diet of the parental parasitoid determines the fitness of the progeny. Improving the hatching rate and the fecundity of progeny produced by the adults of A. nilaparvatae fed with the flower of T. subulata and C. sulphureus would contribute to the increasing population of this parasitoid which could lead to a better control of N. lugens in the rice field.

 

Intisari

Anagrus nilaparvatae merupakan parasitoid telur yang potensial untuk mengendalikan serangan wereng batang cokelat (Nilaparvata lugens Stal.). Parasitoid perlu mendapatkan sumber pakan yang sesuai untuk memaksimalkan potensi biologis dan kemampuan memarasit inang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji manfaat pemberian bunga Turnera subulata dan Cosmos sulphureus pada kehidupan A. nilaparvatae. Penelitian ini terdiri dari dua percobaan. Percobaan pertama dirancang untuk mengetahui pengaruh bunga yang diuji terhadap tingkat parasitasi dan penetasan telur A. nilaparvatae pada telur N. lugens. Bunga diletakkan di dalam tabung rearing parasitoid yang di dalamnya terdapat bibit padi varietas Ciherang yang mengandung telur N. lugens. Selain itu, terdapat pula perlakuan madu dan kontrol (tanpa bunga dan tanpa madu), dengan total empat perlakuan. A. nilaparvate yang diberi pakan bunga atau madu memiliki tingkat parasitasi yang sama dengan yang tidak diberi pakan. Namun, tingkat penetasan telur A. nilaparvatae yang diberi pakan bunga atau madu jauh lebih tinggi daripada yang tidak diberi pakan. Jumlah A. nilaparvatae yang tidak menetas dari telur N. lugens pada parasitoid yang tidak diberi pakan adalah 37,4% dibandingkan dengan parasitoid yang diberi pakan bunga atau madu yang berkisar 8,19 - 15,67%. Percobaan kedua adalah tindak lanjut untuk menjawab pertanyaan tentang kebugaran keturunan A. nilaparvatae yang diberi pakan dengan bunga yang diuji. Bunga dan madu tidak meningkatkan lama hidup keturunan A. nilaparvatae. Namun, A. nilaparvatae yang diberi pakan dengan bunga atau madu menghasilkan keturunan yang memiliki fekunditas lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan keturunan dari A. nilaparvatae yang tidak diberi pakan. Bunga C. sulphureus secara signifikan mampu meningkatkan jumlah keturunan yang dihasilkan oleh A. nilaparvatae. Ini menunjukkan bahwa jenis pakan induk parasitoid menentukan kebugaran keturunannya. Peningkatan penetasan dan fekunditas dari keturunan yang dihasilkan oleh induk A. nilaparvatae yang diberi pakan bunga T. subulata dan C. sulphureus akan berkontribusi pada peningkatan populasi parasitoid sehingga dapat mengendalikan serangan N. lugens di pertanaman padi dengan lebih baik.


Keywords


Anagrus nilaparvatae; Cosmos sulphureus; Nilaparvata lugens; parasitism; Turnera subulata

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.24806

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