Identification of the Causal Agent of Cocoa Pod Rot Disease from Various Locations

https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.24728

Indri Komalasari(1*), Suryanti Suryanti(2), Bambang Hadisutrisno(3)

(1) Tarakan Agricultural Quarantine Service, Indonesian Agricultural Quarantine Agency, Ministry of Agriculture Jln. Yos Sudarso No. 11, Lingkas Ujung, Kota Tarakan, North Kalimantan 77126
(2) Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jln. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Department of Crop Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada Jln. Flora No. 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Cacao (Theboroma cacao L.) is an important estate commodity in Indonesia with high economic value. The interference of cocoa pod rot disease which was affected by Phytophthora palmivora Butl. resulted in the reduction of the quantity and quality of cocoa beans, with losses up to 44%. This research was aimed to figure out the variation in morphology of P. palmivora isolates from cacao. The research was carried out by collecting samples of cocoa pod with rot symptoms in several cacao growing areas in Java, then the pathogen was isolated and cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium. The observation was performed on morphological characteristics of isolates macroscopically (colony shape) and microscopically (size of sporangium and chlamydospores). All tested isolates showed various colony shape such as stellate, cottony and irregular as well as sporangium varying from obpyriform, globose, ellipsoid, ovoid and distorted with various size between 30.8×21.9–65.5×46.5 µm in range.


Intisari

Kakao (Theboroma cacao L.) merupakan komoditas perkebunan unggulan di Indonesia dengan nilai ekonomi tinggi. Gangguan penyakit busuk buah kakao yang disebabkan oleh Phytophthora palmivora Butl. mengakibatkan penurunan kuantitas dan kualitas biji kakao, dengan kerugian mencapai 44%. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui variasi morfologi isolat P. palmivora asal kakao. Penelitian dilakukan dengan mengambil sampel buah kakao bergejala busuk buah di beberapa area perkebunan kakao di Jawa, kemudian patogen diisolasi dan dikulturkan pada media Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA). Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap karakteristik morfologi isolat secara makroskopis (bentuk koloni) dan mikroskopis (ukuran sporangium dan klamidospora). Semua isolat yang diuji menunjukkan bentuk koloni seperti stellate, cottony, dan irregular serta sporangium yang bervariasi dari obpyriform, globose, ellipsoid, ovoid, dan distorted dengan ukuran bervariasi antara 30,8×21,9−65,5×46,5 µm.


Keywords


cacao; kakao; morphological variation; Phytophthora palmivora; variasi morfologi

Full Text:

PDF (English)


References

Agrios, G.N. 2005. Plant Pathology, 5thed. Acad. Press, USA. 922 p.

Bowers, J. H., B.A. Bailey, P.K. Hebbar, S. Sanogo & R. Lumsden. 2001. The Impact of Plant Diseases on World Chocolate Production. Online. Plant Health Progress. Doi: 10.1094/PHP-2001-07090-01-RV.http://www.apsnet.org/ publications/apsnetfeatures/Pages/WorldChocolateProduction.aspx., modified 3/5/17.

Brasier, C.M. 1969. The Effect of Light and Temperature on Reproduction in vitro in Two Tropical Species of Phytophthora. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 52: 105−113.

Chirapongsatonkul, N., K. U-taynapun, T. Chanwun, & N. Churngchow. 2015. Development of a Multiplex PCR Assay for Rapid and Simultaneous Detection of Rubber Tree Pathogens Phytophthora spp. and P. palmivora. Science Asia 41: 170−179.

Erwin, D.C. & O.K. Ribeiro. 1996. Phytophthora Diseases Worldwide. APS Press, USA. 562 p.
Guest, D. 2007. Black Pod: Diverse Pathogens with a Global Impact on Cocoa Yield. Phytopathology 97: 1650−1653.

Khairum, A., A. Tharapreuksapong, S. Wongkaew & P.A. Tantasawat. 2016. Cultural Characteristics and Pathogenicity Analysis of Phytophthora palmivora, Causal Pathogen of Black Rot in Orchids, p. 105−110. In M.A. Rahman & P. Dasic (eds.), International Conference on Agricultural, Food, Biological and Health Sciences (AFBHS-16). Kuala Lumpur, August 22−24, 2016.

Liswarni, Y. 2011. Insidensi Penyakit Busuk Buah (Phytophthora palmivora Butl.) pada Tanaman Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) di Sentra Produksi Kakao Kabupaten Pasaman Barat. Manggaro 12: 43–48.

Manti, I. 2009. Jenis dan Tingkat Serangan Penyakit Busuk Buah Kakao di Kabupaten Padang Pariaman. http://sumbar.litbang.pertanian.go.id/ index.php/ publikasi-1/40-karya-ilmiah-peneliti-dan-penyuluh/139-jenis-dan-tingkat-serangan-penyakit-busuk-buah-kakao-di-kabupaten-padang-pariaman, modified 21/6/16.

McHau, G.R.A & M.D. Coffey. 1994. Isozyme Diversity in Phytophthora palmivora: Evidence for a Southeast Asia Centre of Origin. Mycological Research 98: 1035–1043.

Opeke, L. K & A. M. Gorenz. 1974. Phytophthora Pod Rot: Symtoms and Economic Importance, p. 117−124. In P.H. Gregory (eds.), Phytophthora Disease of Cocoa. Longman Group Limited, London.

Priyatmojo, A & S. Subandiyah. 1996. Ekstraksi DNA Phytophthora palmivora Isolat Kelapa [Extraction of Coconut Isolate of Phytophthora palmivora DNA]. Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia 2: 1–4.

Purwantara, A. 1990. Pengaruh Beberapa Unsur Cuaca terhadap Infeksi Phytophthora palmivora pada Buah Kakao [Effect of Some Meteorological   Elements on the Infection of Phytophthora palmivora on Cocoa Pod]. Menara Perkebunan 58: 78–83.

Rubiyo; A. Purwantara; S. Sukamto &S. Sudarsono. 2008. Isolation of Indigenous Phytophthora palmivora from Indonesia, their Morfological and Pathogenicity Characterization. Pelita Perkebunan 24: 35–48.

Rubiyo & W. Amaria. 2013. Ketahanan Tanaman Kakao terhadap Penyakit Busuk Buah (Phytophthora palmivora Butl.) [Resistance of Cocoa to Black Pod Disease (Phytophthora palmivora Butl.)].  Perspektif 12: 23–36.

Semangun, H. 2008. Penyakit-Penyakit Tanaman Perkebunan di Indonesia. Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta. 808 p.

Sri-Sukamto. 1985. Phytophthora palmivora Butl. Salah Satu Jamur Penyebab Penyakit pada Tanaman Kakao. Menara Perkebunan 53: 7–11.

Subandiyah, S. 2003. Cara Kerja Ekstraksi DNA Menggunakan CTAB. Workshop and Training Course on Molecular Detection for Plant and Environmental Protection. Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, December 15−20, 2003.

Umayah, A. & A. Purwantara. 2006. Identifikasi Isolat Phytophthora Asal Kakao [Identification of Isolates of Phytophthora from Cocoa]. Menara Perkebunan 74: 76 – 85.

Vanegtern, B.; M. Rogers & S. Nelson. 2015. Black Pod Rot of Cacao Caused by Phytophthora palmivora. Plant Disease 108: 1−5.

Wahyuno, D., D. Manohara & D.N. Susilowati. 2007. Variasi Morfologi dan Virulensi Phytophthora capsici Asal Lada. Buletin Plasma Nutfah 13: 70–81.

Zentmyer, G .A. 1974. Variation, Genetics, and Geographical Distribution of Mating Types, p. 89−101. In P.H. Gregory (eds.), Phytophthora Disease of Cocoa. Longman Group Limited, London.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.24728

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 840 | views : 663

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2018 Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Accredited Journal, Based on Decree of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia Number 30/E/KPT/2018, Vol. 21 No. 1 the Year 2017 - Vol. 25 No. 1 the Year 2021. Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia ISSN 1410-1637 (print), ISSN 2548-4788 (online) is indexed by: :