Penyakit Hawar Pelepah (Rhizoctonia solani) pada Padi dan Taktik Pengelolaannya

https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.22494

Bambang Nuryanto(1*)

(1) Balai Besar Penelitian Tanaman Padi, Jln. Raya 9, Sukamandi, Subang, Kabupaten Subang 41256, Jawa Barat
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Rice sheath blight disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn (AG-1), is one of diseases currently growing and widespread in rice-producing areas in Indonesia. Widely planting of short-type and many tillers rice varieties with high doses fertilized, especially urea, can increase the severity of sheath blight disease. Sheath blight disease is becoming increasingly important role in the rice production system, especially in intensive rice farming. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze epidemic components affecting sheath blight development to determine their management strategies. The sheath blight disease is observed to develop more severe in low areas (0−200 m above sea levels) than in the moderate and high areas, severity of disease is seen to increase in short-type many tillers rice varieties. Initial inoculum are sclerotia and the mycelia in plant debris that have an important role in the rice sheath blight development. However, sclerotia may fail to germinate due colonized by various kinds of antagonistic bacteria in the soil. Bacteria that are antagonistic to R. solani can be isolated from paddy soil containing compost. Mature compost can suppress germination of sclerotia of R. solani by 14%, while in the mature compost enriched with antagonistic bacteria can suppress the germination of sclerotia by 28%. Relative humidity and temperature around the plant affect the development of rice sheath blight disease. Relative humidity decreased 2.8% when watering is only done by flooding the trench around, and decreased by 4.4% when flooding of land only 1 time per week. Sheath blight control by implementing some components in an integrated epidemic have higher chances of success in suppressing the disease development.

 

Intisari

Penyakit hawar pelepah padi yang disebabkan oleh jamur Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn (AG-1), merupakan salah satu penyakit yang saat ini berkembang dan tersebar luas di daerah-daerah penghasil padi di Indonesia. Penanaman secara luas padi varietas unggul tipe pendek beranakan banyak dan dipupuk dengan dosis tinggi terutama urea, dapat meningkatkan keparahan penyakit hawar pelepah. Penyakit hawar pelepah menjadi semakin penting peranannya di dalam sistem produksi padi sawah, terutama di daerah pertanian padi yang intensif. Oleh karena itu, perlu analisis komponen epidemi yang memengaruhi perkembangan hawar pelepah untuk menentukan strategi pengelolaannya. Pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa hawar pelepah berkembang lebih parah di daerah rendah (0−200 m dpl) daripada di daerah sedang dan tinggi, keparahan penyakit terlihat semakin meningkat pada varietas padi tipe pendek beranakan banyak. Inokulum awal berupa sklerosia dan miselium dalam serasah tanaman mempunyai peranan penting dalam perkembangan penyakit di pertanaman. Akan tetapi, sklerosia dapat gagal berkecambah karena dikoloni oleh berbagai spesies bakteri antagonis dalam tanah. Bakteri yang bersifat antagonis terhadap R. solani dapat diisolasi dari tanah sawah yang mengandung kompos. Kompos matang dapat menekan perkecambahan sklerosia sebesar 14%, sedangkan pada kompos matang yang diperkaya dengan bakteri antagonis dapat menekan perkecambahan sklerosia sebesar 28%. Kelembapan relatif dan suhu di sekitar tanaman padi memengaruhi perkembangan penyakit hawar pelepah. Kelembapan relatif menurun 2,8% ketika pengairan hanya dilakukan dengan cara penggenangan pada parit keliling, dan turun sebesar 4,4% ketika dilakukan penggenangan lahan 1 kali seminggu. Teknologi pengendalian hawar pelepah dengan menerapkan beberapa komponen epidemik secara terpadu mempunyai peluang keberhasilan tinggi dalam menekan perkembangan penyakit.


Keywords


epidemic component; hawar pelepah padi; komponen epidemik; management strategies; rice sheath blight; strategi pengelolaan

Full Text:

PDF


References

Anonim. 2006. Direktori Padi Indonesia. Balai Besar Penelitian Tanaman Padi. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, Jakarta. 360 p.

Bulluck, L.R. III & J.B. Ristaino. 2002. Effect of Synthetic and Organic Soil Fertility Amendment on Southern Blight, Soil Microbial Communities, and Yield of Processing Tomato. Phytopathology 92: 181−189.

Eizenga, G.C., F.N. Lee, & J.N. Rutger. 2002. Screening Oryza Species Plant for Rice Sheath Blight Resistance. Plant Disease 86: 808−812.

Fagi, A.M. & S. Kartaatmadja. 2004. Teknologi Budidaya Padi: Perkembangan dan Peluang, p. 397−418 In F. Kasryno, E. Pasandaran, & A.M. Fagi. (eds). Ekonomi Padi dan Beras Indonesia. Badan Litbang Pertanian. Departemen Pertanian, Jakarta.

Fukui, S., S. Hartono, & N. Iwamoto. 2003. Risk and Rice Farming Intensification in Rural Java. p. 217−233. In Y. Hayashi, S. Manuwoto, & S. Hartono. (eds). Suistainable Agriculture in Rural Indonesia. Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta.

Groth, D.E. & F. Lee. 2003. Rice Diseases, p. 413−436. In C.W. Smith & R.H. Dilday (eds), Rice Origin, History, Technology, and Production. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey.

Groth, D.E. & J.A. Bond. 2007. Effects of Cultivar and Fungicides on Rice Sheath Blight, Yield, and Quality. Plant Disease 91: 1647−1650.

Guo, Q., A. Kamio, B.S. Sharma, Y. Sagara, M. Arakawa, & K. Inagaki. 2006. Survival and Sub sequent of Rice Sclerotial Diseases Fungi, Rhizoctonia oryzae and Rhizoctonia oryzae-sativae, in Paddy Fields. Plant Disease 90: 615−622.

Hadar, Y., R. Modelbaum & B. Corodecki. 1992. Biological Control of Soilborne Plant Pathogens by Suppressive Compost, p.79−83. In E.C. Tjamos, G.C. Papavizas, & R.J. Cook. (eds), Biological Control of Plant Diseases. Plenum Press, New York.

 Hiddink, G.A.,A.J. Termorshuizen, J.M. Raajimakers, & A.H.C. van Bruggen. 2005. Effect of Mixed and Single Crops on Diseases Suppressiveness of Soils. Phytopathology 95: 1325−1332.

Inagaki, K. 2001. Outbreaks of Rice Sclerotium Diseases in Paddy Fields and Physiological and Ecological Characteristics of this Causal Fungi. Science Replications Agricultures, Meijo University.37: 57−66.

Jia, Y., F. Correa-Victoria, A. McClung, L. Zhu, G. Liu, Y. Wamishe, J. Xie, M.A. Marchetti, S.R.M. Pinson, J.N. Rutger, & J.C. Correl. 2007. Rapid Determination of Rice Cultivar Responses to the Sheath Blight Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani Using Micro-Chamber Screening Method. Plant Disease 91: 485−489.

Kremer, J.R. 2007. Deleterious Rhizocbacteria, p. 335−357. In Gnanamanickam. (ed.), Plant-Associated Bacteria. Springer, Netherlands.

Kumar, K.V.R, M.S. Reddy, J.W. Kloepper, K.S. Lawrence, D.E. Groth, & M.E. Miller. 2009. Sheath Blight Disease of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) -An Overview. Bioscience. Biotechnology Research Asia 6: 465−480.

Mew, T.W. & A.M. Rosales. 1992. Control of Rhizoctonia Sheath Blight and Other Disease of Rice by Seed Bacterization, p.113−123. In E.C. Tjamos, G.C., Papavizas, & R.J. Cook. (eds.), Biological Control of Plant Diseases. Plenum Press, New York.

Mew, T.W., B. Cottyn, R. Pomplona, H. Barrios, L. Xiangmin, C. Zhiyi, L. Fan, N. Nilpanit, P. Arunyanarat, P.V. Kim, & P.V. Du. 2004. Applying Rice Seed-Associated Antagonistic Bacteria to Manage Rice Sheath Blight in Developing Countries. Plant Disease 88: 557−564.

Miller, T.G. & R.K. Webster. 2001. Soil Sampling Techniques for Determining the Effect of Culture Practices on Rhizoctonia oryzae-sativae Inoculums in Rice Field Soil. Plant Disease 85: 967−972.

Nelson, R., R. Orrego, O. Ortiz, J. Tenorio, C. Mundt, M. Fredrix, & N.V. Vien. 2001. Working with Resource-Poor Farmers to Manage Plant Diseases. Plant Disease 85: 684−695.

Nuryanto, B. 2003. Pengelolaan Komponen Epidemik untuk Menekan Hawar Pelepah Daun Padi (Rhizoctonia solani). Tesis. Program Pasca Sarjana. Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor. 157 p.

Nuryanto, B., A. Priyatmojo, B. Hadisutrisno, & B. Hendrosunarminto. 2010. Hubungan antara Inokulum Awal Patogen dengan Perkembangan Penyakit Hawar Upih pada Padi Varietas Ciherang. Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia 16: 55−61.

Nuryanto, B. 2011. Varietas, Kompos dan Cara Pengairan sebagai Komponen Pengendali Penyakit Hawar Upih. Disertasi. Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. 126 p.

Nuryanto, B., A. Priyatmojo, dan B. Hadisutrisno. 2014. Pengaruh Tinggi Tempat dan Tipe Tanaman Padi terhadap Keparahan Penyakit Hawar Pelepah. Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan 33: 1−8.

Prasad, B. & G.C. Eizenga. 2008. Rice Sheath Blight Disease Resistance Identified in Oryza spp. Accessions. Plant Disease 92: 1503−1509.

Priyatmojo, A. 2006. Tipe Mating pada Empat Isolat Thanatephorus cucmeris (Anamorph: Rhizoctonia solani) Anastomosis Group (AG) I-1C. Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia 2: 112−122.

Radjagukguk, B. 2004. Developing Sustainable Agriculture of Tropical Peatland. Wise Use of Peatlands, p. 707−712. In J.J. Paivaven. (ed.), Procedings of the 12th International Peat Congress. Tempere, Finland, 6−11 June 2004.

Savary, S., L. Willocquet, F.A. Elazegul, N.P. Castilla, & P.S. Teng. 2000. Rice Pest Constrain in Tropical Asia: Quantification of Yield Losses Due to Rice Pest in Range of Production Situations. Plant Disease 84: 357−369.

Semangun, H. 2008. Penyakit-Penyakit Tanaman Pangan di Indonesia. 2nd Ed. Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta. 475 p.

Setiabudi, D. & S. Kartaatmadja. 2002. Efisiensi Penggunaan Air dan Hubungannya dengan Produktivitas Padi Sawah di Wilayah Layan Irigasi Waduk Pondok, Ngawi. Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian 21: 11−17.

Sulivan, P. 2003. Organic Rice Production. http://www.attra.ncat.org, diakses 9/1/11.

Suparyono & Sudir. 1999. Peran Sklerosia dan Bentuk Lain Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, sebagai Sumber Inokulum Awal Penyakit Hawar Pelepah Padi. Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia 5: 7−12.

Suriadikarta, D.A. & A. Adimihardja. 2001. Penggunaan Pupuk dalam Rangka Peningkatan Produktivitas Lahan Sawah. Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian. 20: 144−152.

Syamsuddin. 2008. Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Padi pada Dua Jenis Tanah dan Berbagai Lebar Bedengan Sistem Genangan dalam Parit. Tesis. Program Pascasarjana. Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. 143 p.

Weller, D.M., J.M. Raaijmakers, N.B. McSpadden Gardener, & L.S. Thomashow. 2002. Microbial Population Responsible for Specific Soil Suppessiveness to Plant Pathogens. Annual Review Phytopathology 40: 309−348.

Winarso, S. 2005. Kesuburan Tanah: Dasar Kesehatan dan Kualitas Tanah. Gava Media, Yogyakarta. 128 p.

Wolf, B. & G.H. Snyder. 2003. Sustainable Soils: The Place of Organik Matter in Sustaining Soils and their Productivity. Food Products Press. New York, London, Oxford. 352 p.

Wolfe, D.W. 2001. Tales from The Underground: A Natural History of Subterannean life. Perseus Publishing, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 221 p.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.22494

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2525 | views : 9515

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2017 Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Accredited Journal, Based on Decree of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia Number 30/E/KPT/2018, Vol. 21 No. 1 the Year 2017 - Vol. 25 No. 1 the Year 2021. Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia ISSN 1410-1637 (print), ISSN 2548-4788 (online) is indexed by: :