Identifikasi Molekuler Virus Penyebab Mosaik pada Sembilan Varietas Tebu

https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.17733

Dewi Rahmitasari(1*), Susamto Somowiyarjo(2), Sedyo Hartono(3)

(1) Balai Besar Perbenihan dan Proteksi Tanaman Perkebunan (BBPPTP) Surabaya, Jln. Raya Mojoagung No. 52, Mojoagung, Jombang, Jawa Timur 61482
(2) Departemen Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Departemen Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is very important commodity in Indonesia because of its economical value as a sugar producing plant. One of the disease in sugarcane cultivation which have to be treated is mosaic symptoms because of its potency in reducing sugar yield. Mosaic symptoms might be caused by some viruses, therefore virus identification is required to find the virus that has caused the sugarcane disease in all of sugarcane field which can be found in East Java as working area of Seeding and Protection Center for Estate Crops Surabaya. This laboratory had an authority to certify the shoot to be distributed. This research aimed to find out the virus that caused the mosaic symptoms from nine sugarcane varieties and to obtain information about the most suitable identification method for shoot health test in Seeding and Protection Center for Estate Crops Surabaya. The first method of this research were the sugarcane leaf with mosaic sampling from nine varieties: VMC 7616, PSJK 922, Kidang Kencana and Tolangohula 2 (Jombang); PS 881 and PS 862 (Pasuruan); PS 864 dan PSBM 901 (Kediri). The next experiments were conducted in the Laboratory of Phytopathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada. RNA was isolated from the sample and continued with RT-PCR technique, sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Primers which was used in this research were MJ1-MJ2 and SCSMV cpF – SCSMV AP3. The result showed that mosaic symptoms of eight sugarcane varieties was caused by two species of virus: SCMV (Sugarcane mosaic virus) found in PS 881 and SCSMV (Sugarcane streak mosaic virus) found in seven another varieties. Sequencing analysis showed that SCMV isolate found in PS 881 was known to have a high nucleotide homology (93.6%) and related to the isolate from Kenya (KT630805.1), while the SCSMV had a high homology (96.9%−98.5%) and related to SCSMV isolate from Indonesia (AB563503.1) and Pakistan (GQ388116.1).

 

INTISARI


Tebu (Saccharum officinarum L.) merupakan tanaman penting di Indonesia. Salah satu penyakit yang perlu diwaspadai pada tanaman tebu adalah penyakit mosaik karena potensinya dalam menurunkan produktivitas tebu sehingga perlu dilakukan identifikasi virus penyebab mosaik pada tanaman tebu. BBPPTP Surabaya sebagai instansi yang melaksanakan sertifikasi pada bibit tebu perlu mengetahui metode identifikasi virus penyebab mosaik sebagai dasar dalam pengujian kesehatan benih untuk mendukung tersedianya bibit tebu yang sehat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui virus penyebab mosaik pada sembilan varietas tanaman tebu dan mengetahui metode identifikasi virus pada tanaman yang cepat dan akurat untuk pengujian kesehatan benih. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Fitopatologi, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada. Penelitian dilakukan dengan mengambil sampel daun tanaman tebu pada sembilan varietas yang diambil dari tiga lokasi berbeda yaitu VMC 7616, PSJK 922, Kidang Kencana dan Tolangohula 2 (Jombang); PS 881 dan PS 862 (Pasuruan); PS 864 dan PSBM 901 (Kediri). Sampel diisolasi ss-RNA dilanjutkan dengan teknik RT-PCR (Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction), sekuensing dan analisis bioinformatika. Primer yang digunakan dalam penelitian ada dua yaitu MJ1-MJ2 untuk target sekuen dari SCMV dan SCSMV cpF-SCSMV AP3 untuk target sekuen dari SCSMV. Hasil penelitian ditemukan bahwa gejala mosaik yang ditimbulkan pada 8 (delapan) sampel varietas tebu disebabkan oleh 2 (dua) jenis virus penyebab mosaik yaitu SCMV (Sugarcane mosaic virus) yang ditemukan pada varietas PS 881 dan SCSMV (Sugarcane streak mosaic virus) yang ditemukan pada 7 (tujuh) varietas lain. Analisis sekuensing menunjukkan bahwa SCMV yang ditemukan pada varietas PS 881 memiliki homologi nukleotida (93,6%) dan kekerabatan terdekat dengan isolat di Kenya (KT630805.1). SCSMV hasil penelitian ini dikatakan mempunyai homologi (96,9%−98,5%) dan kekerabatan tertinggi dengan isolat SCSMV asal Indonesia (AB563503.1) dan Pakistan (GQ388116.1).


Keywords


Potyvirus; SCMV; SCSMV; sugarcane virus; virus tebu

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.17733

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