The Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 on The Survival of The Non-Target Pest, Spodoptera litura

https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.16618

Kurnia Pratiwi(1*), Y. Andi Trisyono(2), Edhi Martono(3)

(1) Department of Plant Pest and Disease Faculty of Agriculture Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281
(2) Department Plant Pest and Disease Faculty of Agriculture Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Department Plant Pest and Disease Faculty of Agriculture Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Spodoptera litura is one of the important insect pest of maize besides the notoriously damaging corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis. S. litura has been the target of various controls including the use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2. This study was conducted to evaluate the acute effect of Bt toxin Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 on the growth and development of S. litura from larval to adult stages. Two sublethal concentrations were used; 0.1875 and 0.0469 ppm for Cry1A.105, and 0.0008 and 0.0003 ppm for Cry2Ab2. The bioassay using diet dipping was carried out on a CRD with three experiments and five repetitions. The observation was carried out on the mortality and survival rates of S. litura. The mortality reached 28% when the larvae were treated with 0.1875 ppm and 20% with 0.0469 ppm of Cry 1A.105. The exposed larvae and pupae were smaller than control. Larval and pupal weight were 117.0 and 165.6 g with 0.1875 ppm, while control were 212.9 and 211.2 g. Cry1A.105 also longer the larval stage, larval stage with higher and lower concentration were 24.5 and 22.3 day, while control was 20.5 day. The resulted pupae from larve which exposed by Cry1A.105 were less than control; there were 40% at concentration 0.1875 ppm and control 61%. The two concentration of Cry2Ab2 produced similar mortality of 20%. Similarly, Cry2Ab2 affected pupal to adult stages development. The longevity of pupal stage with concentration 0.0003 ppm was 9.5 days, followed by 0.0008 ppm (9.1 days) and control (10.1 days). The adult emerge on the highest concentration was 47.4% while control only 34.6%. There results showed that both Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 were detrimental to the survival of S. litura which is the non-target insect of transgenic Bt maize.

 

INTISARI


 

Spodoptera litura merupakan salah satu hama penting yang menyerang tanaman jagung, selain Ostrinia furnacalis. Belakangan ini O. furnacalis diketahui telah menjadi target dari berbagai macam cara pengendalian termasuk penggunaan toksin Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A.105 dan Cry2Ab2. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui efek akut toksin Bt Cry1A.105 dan Cry2Ab2 terhadap pertumbuhan dan perkembangan S. litura dari larva sampai imago. Dua konsentrasi subletal yang akan digunakan adalah; 0,1875 dan 0,0469 ppm untuk Cry1A.105, dan 0,0008 dan 0,0003 ppm untuk Cry2Ab2. Pengujian dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode celup pakan dan Rancangan Acak Legkap dengan tiga perlakuan dan lima ulangan. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap mortalitas dan kelangsungan hidup S. litura. Mortalitas mencapai 28% pada larva yang dipaparkan dengan 0,1875 ppm dan 20% dengan 0,0469 ppm Cry 1A.105. Larva dan pupa yang terkena toksin berukuran lebih kecil. Berat larva dan pupa yang terpapar toksin dengan konsentrasi 0,1875 ppm, masing – masing 117,0 dan 165,6 g, sedangkan kontrol masing – masing 212,9 dan 211,2 g. Cry1A.105 juga dapat memperpanjang stadia larva. Lama stadia larva dengan konsentrasi tertinggi dan terendah adalah 24,5 dan 22,3 hari, sedangkan kontrol 20,5 hari. Jumlah pupa yang berhasil terbentuk dari larva yang terpapar toxin Cry1A.105 lebih sedikit dibandingkan dengan kontrol; pada konsentrasi 0,1875 ppm sebesar 40%, sedangkan kontrol sebesar 61%. Kedua konsentrasi dari toksin Bt Cry2Ab2 menyebabkan mortalitas yang sama yaitu 20%. Cry2Ab2 juga berpengaruh terhadap lama stadia pupa dan tingkat keberhasilan pembentukan imago. Lama stadia pupa dengan konsentrasi 0,0003 ppm adalah 9,5 hari, diikuti dengan konsentrasi 0,0008 ppm (9,1 hari) dan kontrol (10,1 hari). Jumlah imago terbanyak terdapat pada perlakuan dengan konsentrasi 0,0008 ppm sebesar 47,4% sedangkan pada kontrol hanya 34,6%. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa toksin Bt Cry1A. 105 dan Cry2Ab2 juga berpengaruh terhadap kelangsungan hidup S. litura yang merupakan serangga bukan sasaran dari tanaman jagung transgenik Bt.




Keywords


Cry1A.105; Cry2Ab2; hama bukan sasaran; jagung; kelangsungan hidup; maize; non-target pest; Spodoptera litura; survival

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.16618

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