Survei Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV) yang Menginfeksi Anggrek Alam Tropis di Indonesia

https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.16617

Mahfut Mahfut(1*), Budi Setiadi Daryono(2), Tri Joko(3), Susamto Somowiyarjo(4)

(1) Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Lampung, Jln. Soemantri Brojonegoro No.1, Rajabasa, Bandar Lampung 35145.
(2) Fakultas Biologi Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Teknika Selatan, Sekip Utara, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281.
(3) Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281.
(4) Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281.
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Natural orchids are one of the important ornamental plants that were cultivated in tropical countries, including Indonesia. Virus infections has been important limiting factor in orchids cultivation because it decreases the orchids quality. Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV) is one of the most reported virus infecting orchids which spread widely in the world. During 2010–2014 surveys of viral infections were conducted in Indonesia. The orchids were found infected by virus, showed symptoms of mosaic, mottle, chlorotic, necrotic, streak, wilting leaf, and ringspot on leaf surface. Detection with serological test DAS-ELISA showed only 11 from 125 samples were infected by ORSV with total incidence of 8,8%. Nine leaf samples of Phalaenopsis sp. were infected, respectively. Thus, it was concluded that Phalaenopsis is orchids genus which is the most abundantly and susceptibly infected by ORSV. The results proved that ORSV have entered and spread widely by infected orchids in orchids landscape (nursery), semi-natural forests (botanical gardens), and natural forest (national park) throughout Indonesia. This is the first report of ORSV infecting natural tropical orchids in Indonesia.

 

INTISARI

 

Anggrek alam merupakan salah satu kekayaan flora asli negara tropis, termasuk Indonesia. Keberadaan di habitat aslinya sudah sangat berkurang yang disebabkan kerusakan hutan dan adanya penyakit. Infeksi virus masih menjadi faktor pembatas terpenting dalam budidaya dan pengembangan potensi anggrek alam. Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV) adalah salah satu jenis virus yang dilaporkan paling banyak menginfeksi anggrek serta memiliki penyebaran yang luas di dunia. Selama 2010-2014 telah dilakukan survei lapangan terhadap infeksi virus di Indonesia. Beberapa anggrek yang ditemukan terinfeksi oleh virus menunjukkan gejala berupa mosaik, belang, klorosis, nekrosis, streak, daun layu, dan bercak cincin pada permukaan daun. Deteksi dengan uji serologis DAS-ELISA menunjukkan bahwa 11 dari 125 sampel terinfeksi oleh ORSV dengan total kejadian 8,8%. Masing-masing sembilan dari total sampel daun terinfeksi merupakan Phalaenopsis sp. Hal ini menjelaskan bahwa Phalaenopsis adalah genus anggrek yang paling cocok dan rentan terhadap infeksi ORSV. Hasil penelitian survei kejadian infeksi Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV) membuktikan bahwa virus ini telah masuk dan menyebar secara luas oleh anggrek-anggrek alam tropis yang terinfeksi di pertamanan anggrek (nurseri), hutan semi-alami (kebun raya), dan hutan alam (taman nasional) di seluruh wilayah Indonesia. Ini merupakan laporan pertama mengenai infeksi ORSV terhadap anggrek-anggrek alam tropis di Indonesia.




Keywords


anggrek alam tropis; DAS-ELISA; Indonesia; nature tropical orchids; ORSV

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.16617

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