Identifikasi Fusarium dan Nematoda Parasitik yang Berasosiasi dengan Penyakit Kuning Lada di Kalimantan Barat

https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.16019

Suryanti Suryanti(1*), Bambang Hadisutrisno(2), Mulyadi Mulyadi(3), Jaka Widada(4)

(1) Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281
(2) Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281
(4) Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Pepper (Piper nigrum), known as the “King of Spices” is one of the most important spices. In the international market, Indonesian pepper has high selling value, due to its flavor characteristics. Pepper yellowing disease is one of the most important disease that caused the decrease of pepper production and become the main problem in the cultivation of pepper in West Kalimantan. This research was conducted to determine the major causal agent of leaf yellowing disease of pepper. The Fusarium associated with diseased plant were isolated from the symptomatic plant and nematodes were isolated from the root with leaf yellowing symptom. The Fusarium isolates were cultured on agar medium, and the nematode was cultured on tomato plant. From diseased pepper in West Kalimantan, it was isolated 4 Fusarium isolates and plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne. The result showed that H isolate of Fusarium was the most virulent isolate and identified asFusarium solani. The Meloidogyne was identified by the female perenial patern.The nematode was identified as Meloidogyne incognita.


INTISARI

Lada (Piper nigrum L.) merupakan salah satu jenis rempah penting yang telah dikenal sebagai “King of Spices”. Di pasar internasional, lada Indonesia mempunyai daya jual tinggi karena cita rasanya yang khas. Salah satu kendala dalam budidaya lada adalah adanya penyakit kuning lada dan sampai saat ini menjadi masalah utama pada pertanaman lada di Kalimantan Barat. Informasi tentang patogen utama yang berinteraksi dengan penyakit kuning lada masih sangat terbatas, sehingga penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi patogen utama yang berasosiasi dengan penyakit kuning lada. Isolasi Fusarium dilakukan dari batang lada dan isolasi nematoda dilakukan dari akar lada yang bergejala penyakit kuning di Kalimantan Barat. Fusarium hasil isolasi dikulturkan dalam medium agar, sedangkan nematoda hasil isolasi dikulturkan dalam akar tomat. Dari hasil isolasi berhasil didapatkan empat isolat Fusarium dan nematoda Meloidogyne. Identifikasi Fusarium dilakukan secara morfologis dan molekuler, dan identifikasi Meloidogyne dilakukan dengan menggunakan irisan bagian posterior nematoda betina. Dari hasil identifikasi diketahui bahwa patogen yang berasosiasi dengan penyakit kuning lada adalah Fusarium solani dan Meloidogyne incognita.


Keywords


Fusarium solani; Meloidogyne incognita; penyakit kuning lada; pepper yellowing disease

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.16019

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