Pengelolaan Kutu Kebul (Bemisia tabaci Gen.) dengan Sistem Barier pada Tanaman Tembakau

https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.16014

Tri Maruto Aji(1*), Sedyo Hartono(2), Sri Sulandari(3)

(1) Pusat Penelitian Teh dan Kina (PPTK) Gambung, PO Box 1013, Bandung, Jawa Barat 40010
(2) Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jln. Flora 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Since 2009, the leaf curl disease was observed on tobacco plants grown under net shadow of PTPN X (Persero) and has caused yield losses up to 70%. The disease was likely to be associated with the existence of a high population of the sweet potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gen.) and the symptoms resembled that reported for Begomovirus infection on eggplant and tomatoes. This study aimed to know the effectiveness of physical barriers in combination with a biological barrier to avoid B. tabaci in infesting the farm. The research was done by monitoring tobacco diseases to measure the diseases intensity. Research for the management of insect vectorsB. tabaci were done based on two pretexts: (1) physical barrier using the type of net; and (2) combinations of a net with a plant (corn belt). The result showed that an effective control was obtained using a net with higher mesh size rather than using a standard net with low mesh size which was presently used by PTPN X (Persero). Corn barrier did not effective to control B. tabaci except as a wind breaker.


INTISARI

Peningkatan populasi kutu kebul (B. tabaci Gen.) di daerah Klaten, Jawa Tengah pada tahun 2009 ternyata menjadi penyebab mewabahnya penyakit kerupuk pada tanaman Solanaceae di wilayah tersebut. Tanaman tembakau cerutu Vorstenlanden milik PTPN X (Persero) yang ditanam di area bawah naungan (TBN) yang berada di wilayah tersebut turut terjangkit wabah penyakit kerupuk setelah sebelumnya terindikasi terjadi peningkatan jumlah kutu kebul. Wabah penyakit kerupuk pada tembakau cerutu Vorstenlanden milik PTPN X (Persero) telah menurunkan hasil hingga 70%. Gejala penyakit pada tembakau berupa penyakit kerupuk. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas penerapan barier fisik sebagai langkah awal untuk mengendalikan populasi kutu kebul pada pertanaman tembakau cerutu milik PTPN X (Persero). Penelitian dimulai dengan memonitoring populasi kutu kebul dan peningkatan intensitas penyakit kerupuk pada tanaman tembakau. Percobaan dilakukan secara demplot pada lahan pertanaman tembakau di wilayah PTPN X (Persero). Teknis budidaya tembakau seluruhnya mengikuti Standar Operasional Prosedur (SOP) dari PTPN X (Persero), sedangkan untuk strategi pengendalian kutu kebul dilaksanakan dengan mengikuti 2 macam perlakuan yaitu ; (1) penerapan sistem barier tunggal berupa kelambu (bermesh rapat) dan kelambu standar dari PTPN X sebagai barier fisik (2) penerapan sistem barier ganda yaitu kombinasi barier fisik dan barier biologis berupa tanaman jagung penghalang. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa penerapan sistem barier baik tunggal maupun ganda dapat menekan populasi kutu kebul sehingga berdampak pada penurunan intensitas penyakit kerupuk pada tembakau.


Keywords


barrier system; Begomovirus; Bemisia tabaci; leaf curl; penyakit kerupuk; sistem barier; tembakau; tobacco

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.16014

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