Keragaman Semut pada Ekosistem Tanaman Kakao di Desa Banjaroya Kecamatan Kalibawang Yogyakarta

https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.15607

Moh. Ikbal(1), Nugroho Susetya Putra(2*), Edhi Martono(3)

(1) Universitas Muhammadiyah Palu
(2) Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This study aims to determine the diversity of ants in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) ecosystems in six hamlets in the village of Banjaroya, District Kalibawang Yogyakarta. The sampling was carried out by the method of feeding ants using tuna and sugar solution, which is placed on the cacao tree and the ground surface; pit-fall traps; and direct picking by hand. Six sub-family of ants, namely Cerapachynae, Dolichoderinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae, and Pseudomyrmicinae were found. Six of the most abundant genera found in each catchment were Dolichoderus sp., Anoplolepis sp., Paratrechina sp., Crematogaster sp., Pheidole sp., and Pheidologeton sp., which is known to be aggressive and invasive. The analysis showed that the diversity of ant communities in the Village Banjaroya categorized as medium (H ‘> 1-3), meaning that the overall state of the ecosystem of the cocoa crop was classified as stable or steady. Meanwhile, the results of the analysis of the dominance index (C) shows that the community of ants in each village tends was tended to be dominated by a single species (C close to 0). The relationship between habitat condition and the diversity of ant was discussed in this article.



 

Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui keragaman semut pada ekosistem kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) di 6 dusun di Desa Banjaroya, Kecamatan Kalibawang Yogyakarta. Pengambilan sampel semut dilakukan dengan metode pengumpanan menggunakan ikan tuna dan larutan gula yang diletakkan pada pohon kakao dan permukaan tanah; lubang perangkap; dan pemungutan dengan tangan. Enam subfamili semut, yaitu Cerapachynae, Dolichoderinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae, dan Pseudomyrmicinae telah ditemukan di lokasi pengambilan sampel. Enam genus yaitu Dolichoderus sp., Anoplolepis sp., Paratrechina sp., Crematogaster sp., Pheidole sp. dan Pheidologeton sp. yang dikenal agresif dan invasif, ditemukan paling melimpah di setiap dusun. Hasil analisis keragaman komunitas semut di Desa Banjaroya menunjukkan bahwa secara keseluruhan keadaan ekosistem pada tanaman kakao masih tergolong stabil atau mantap dikategorikan sebagai medium (H’>1-3). Sementara itu, hasil analisis indeks dominasi (C) menunjukkan bahwa komunias semut pada setiap dusun cenderung didominasi oleh satu spesies (C mendekati 0). Hubungan antara kondisi habitat dengan keragaman semut didiskusikan dalam tulisan ini.


Keywords


ekosistem tanaman kakao, keragaman semut; ant diversity, cocoa plantation

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.15607

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