Deteksi dan Sebaran Soybean Mosaic Virus (SMV) dan Soybean Stunt Virus (SSV) di Berbagai Sentra Produksi Kedelai di Indonesia

https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.15606

Sri Sulandari(1*), Sedyo Hartono(2), Y.M.S. Maryudani(3), Yashanti B. Paradisa(4)

(1) Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(4) Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


There were some commonly found mosaic diseases on soybean in Indonesia that were suspected to be caused by viruses. The main virus diseases of soybean plant are Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and Soybean stunt virus (SSV). The occurrence of mosaic diseases are very harmful because they might reduce soybean grain yield. The aim of this research is to determine the disease incidence and distribution of mosaic disease in the field that caused by SMV and SSV. The surveys were conducted in some regions of the area of soybean production center in Indonesia including: Special Region of Yogyakarta (DIY), Central Java, East Java, West Nusatenggara (NTB), and South Sulawesi. Detection of the viruses were done by serological test using I-ELISA and by molecular analysis using PCR. The field surveys showed that the mosaic symptoms always found in all the field location. The disease incidence and the disease severity varied in any locations. The disease symptoms showed as mild mosaic, yellow mosaic, mosaic with blister, and mosaic with leaves malformation by curling and stunting. The I-ELISA showed that all the samples collected were double infected by SMV and SSV. Both of the viruses were widespread all over the soybean production center in Indonesia. By PCR using CI-SMV primer, the DNA of virus could be amplified to about 638 bp which indicated SMV infection, but using cp-SSV primer, the DNA could be amplified to about 657 bp that indicated of SSV infection.

 

 

Pada pertanaman kedelai di Indonesia banyak ditemukan gejala mosaik yang diduga disebabkan virus. Virus penyebab penyakit mosaik pada tanaman kedelai antara lain Soyben mosaic virus (SMV) dan Soybean stunt virus (SSV). Keberadaan penyakit mosaik pada pertanaman kedelai sangat merugikan karena berpotensi dapat menurunkan angka hasil kedelai. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat kejadian dan sebaran penyakit mosaik yang disebabkan SMV dan SSV di berbagai sentra produksi kedelai di Indonesia. Survei dilakukan di DIY, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, NTB, dan Sulawesi Selatan. Deteksi keberadaan virus dilakukan secara serologi dengan teknik I-ELISA (Indirect-Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay) dan secara molekuler dengan teknik PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction ). Berdasarkan pengamatan di lapangan gejala mosaik selalu ditemukan pada setiap lokasi pengamatan. Kejadian dan tingkat keparahan penyakit yang ditemukan bervariasi. Gejala yang ditemukan adalah mosaik ringan, mosaik kuning, mosaik dengan tonjolan warna hijau tua (blister), dan mosaik dengan malformasi berupa daun keriting dan tanaman kerdil. Berdasarkan uji I-ELISA semua sampel daun bergejala mosaik terinfeksi ganda oleh SMV dan SSV. Kedua jenis virus tersebut sudah tersebar luas di semua sentra pertanaman kedelai di Indonesia. Deteksi PCR menggunakan primer spesifik CI-SMV dari beberapa lokasi dapat mengamplifikasi pita DNA berukuran sekitar 638 bp yang mengindikasikan terinfeksi SMV, sedangkan menggunakan primer universal cp-CMV dapat mengamplikasi pita DNA berukuran sekitar 657 bp yang mengindikasikan terinfeksi SSV.


Keywords


I-ELISA, mosaic symptom, PCR, SMV, soybean, SSV; gejala mosaic, kedelai.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.15606

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