Biological Control of Plant Disease Caused by Bacteria

Triwidodo Arwiyanto(1*)

(1) Department of Plant Pest and Disease, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author


Bacterial diseases in plants are difficult to control. The emphasis is on preventing the spread of the bacteria rather than curing the diseased plant. Integrated management measures for bacterial plant pathogens should be applied for successfull control. Biological control is one of the control measures viz. through the use of microorganisms to suppress the growth and development of bacterial plant pathogen and ultimately reduce the possibility of disease onset. The study of biological control of bacterial plant pathogen was just began compared with of fungal plant pathogen. The ecological nature of diverse bacterial plant pathogens has led scientists to apply different approach in the investigation of its biological control. The complex process of entrance to its host plant for certain soil-borne bacterial plant pathogens need special techniques and combination of more than one biological control agent. Problem and progress in controlling bacterial plant pathogens biologically will be discussed in more detail in the paper and some commercial products of biological control agents (biopesticides) will be introduced.



Penyakit tumbuhan karena bakteri sulit dikendalikan. Penekanan pengendalian adalah pada pencegahan penyebaran bakteri patogen dan bukan pada penyembuhan tanaman yang sudah sakit. Untuk suksesnya pengendalian bakteri patogen tumbuhan diperlukan cara pengelolaan yang terpadu. Pengendalian secara biologi merupakan salah satu cara pengendalian dengan menggunakan mikroorganisme untuk menekan pertumbuhan dan perkembangan bakteri patogen tumbuhan dengan tujuan akhir menurunkan kemungkinan timbulnya penyakit. Sifat ekologi bakteri patogen tumbuhan yang berbeda-beda mengharuskan pendekatan yang berbeda pula dalam pengendaliannya secara biologi. Masalah dan perkembangan dalam pengendalian bakteri patogen tumbuhan secara biologi didiskusikan secara detail dalam makalah ini.


bacterial plant pathogen; bakteri patogen tumbuhan; biocontrol; pengendalian biologi

Full Text:



Adhikari, T.B., C.M. Vera Cruz, Q. Zhang, R.J. Nelson, D.Z. Skinner, T. W. Mew, & J.E. Leach. 1995. Genetic Diversity of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in Asia. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61: 966–971.

Agrios, G.N. 2005. Plant Pathology. 5th ed. Elsevier Academic Press, California. 922 p.

Álvarez, B., M.M. López, & E.G. Biosca. 2007. Influence of Native Microbiota on Survival of Ralstonia solanacearum Phylotype II in River Water Microcosms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73: 7210–7217.

Anith, K.N., M.T. Momol, J.W. Kloepper, J.J. Marois, S.M. Olson, & J.B. Jones. 2004. Efficacy of Plant Growth–promotingRhizobacteria,Acibenzolar-S-methyl, and Soil Amendment for Integrated Management of Bacterial Wilt on Tomato. Plant Disease 88: 669–673.

Anonymous. 2011. Bacterial Blight. http://www. index.php/bacterial-blight.

Arwiyanto,T., M. Goto, & S.Tsuyumu. 1994. Biological Control of Bacterial Wilt of Tomato by an Avirulent Strain of Pseudomonas solanacearum. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 60: 421–430.

Arwiyanto, T., I. Hartana, & Sudarmadi. 1995. Characteristics of the Causal Agent of Deli-Tobacco Bacterial Wilt. Paper presented at the Scientific Seminar and XIII Congress of Indonesian Phytopathological Society. Mataram, September 25–27, 1995. Indonesia. (In Indonesian).

Arwiyanto, T. 1997. Biological Control of Tobacco Bacterial Wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum): 1. Isolation of Antagonistic Bacteria. Indonesian Journal of Plant Protection 3: 54–60.

Arwiyanto, T. & I. Hartana. 2001. Field Experiment of Biological Control of Tobacco Bacterial Wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum). Mediagama 3: 7–14. (In Indonesian).

Arwiyanto, T., F. Yuniarsih, T. Martoredjo, & G. Dalmadiyo. 2007a. Direct Selection of Fluorescent Pseudomonad in the Field for Biological Control of Lincat Disease of Tobacco. Journal of Tropical Plant Pest and Diseases 7: 1411–7525. (In Indonesian).

Arwiyanto, T., Y.M.S. Maryudani, & A.E. Prasetyo. 2007b. Charactherization andActivity Tests of Bacillus spp. asABiological ControlAgent of Lincat Disease on TemanggungTobacco. Indonesian. Journal of Biological Researches 12: 93–98. (In Indonesian).

Arwiyanto, T., K. Haryono, A. Priyatmojo, T. Martoredjo, & G. Dalmadiyo. 2007c. Suppression of Temanggung Tobacco Bacterial Wilt with Streptomyces spp. Journal of Indonesian Plant Protection 13: 13–21.

Arwiyanto, T. & S.D. Nurcahyanti. 2007. Antagonism among Isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum and against Strain Pf-20 of Pseudomonas putida. Paper presented at 2nd Asian Congress of Mycology and Plant Pathology. December 19–22, 2007. Hyderabad, India.

Arwiyanto, T. & H. Bustamam. 2010. Biological Control of Ginger Bacterial Wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) with Streptomyces. Poster presented at 12th International Conference on Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Reunion-France.

Arwiyanto, T.,Y.M.S. Maryudani, & S.D. Nurcahyanti. 2010. Protection of Eggplant and Chilli from Bacterial Wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) with Antagonistic Bacteria. Paper presented at 28th International Horticultural Congress. August 22–28, 2010.

Lisbon, Portugal. Asrul, T. Arwiyanto, & Maryudani. 2004. Effect of Tomato Seed Treated with Pseudomonas putida Pf-20 against Bacterial Wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum). Agrosains 17: 419–430. (In Indonesian).

Beattie, G.A. 2006. Plant-associated Bacteria: Survey, Molecular Phylogeny, Genomics and RecentAdvances, p. 1–56. In S.S. Gnanamanickam (ed.), Plant-associated Bacteria, Springer. Dordrecht.

Beveridge,W.I.B.1957.The Art of Scientific Investigation. Vintage Books. NewYork. 210 p.

Bull, C.T., S.H. De Boer, T.P. Denny, G. Firrao, M. Fischer-Le Saux, G.S. Saddler, M. Scortichini, D.E. Stead, & Y. Takikawa. 2010. Comprehensive List of Names of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, 1980–2007. Journal of Plant Pathology 92: 551–592.

Chen, W.Y. & E. Echandi. 1984, Effects of Avirulent Bacteriocin Producing Strains of Pseudomonas solanacearum on the Control of Bacterial Wilt of Tobacco. Plant Pathology 33: 245–253.

Ciampi-Panno, L., C. Fernandez, & P. Bustamante. 1996. Biological Control of Bacterial Wilt of Potatoes Caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum. American Potato Journal 66: 315–332.

Cook, R.J., &A.D. Rovira. 1976. The Role of Bacteria in the Biological Control of Gaeumannomyces graminis by Suppressive Soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 8: 269–273.

Cook, R.J. & K.F. Baker. 1983. The Nature and Practice of Biological Control of Plant Pathogens. APS Press. St Paul, Minnesota. 539 p.

Dardick, C., F.G. da Silva, Y. Shen, & P. Ronald. 2003. Antagonistic Interactions between Strains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. Phytopathology 93: 705–711.

Desai, S., M.S. Reddy, & J.W. Kloepper. 2002. Comprehensive Testing of BiocontrolAgents, p. 387–420. In S.S. Gnanamanickam, (ed.), Biological Control of Crop Diseases. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York. Foster, R.C. 1988. Microenvironments of Soil Microorganisms. Biology and Fertility of Soils 6: 189–203.

Fravel, D. 1988. Role of Antibiosis in the Biocontrol of Plant Diseases. Annual Review of Phytopathology 26: 75–91.

Fujiwara,A., M. Fujisawa, R. Hamasaki, T. Kawasaki, M. Fujie, & T. Yamada. 2011. Biocontrol of Ralstonia solanacearum by Treatment with Lytic Bacteriophages. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77: 4155–4162.
Furuya, N.,Y. Kushima, & K.Tsuchiya. 1991. Protection of Tomato by Pretreatment with Pseudomonas glumae from Infection with Pseudomonas solanacearum and its Mechanisms. Annals of the Phytopathologicial Society of Japan 57: 363–370.

Goto, M. 1990. Fundamental of Bacterial Plant Pathology. Academic Press. Tokyo. 342 p.

Hara, H. & Ono, K. 1991. Effect of Weakly-virulent Bacteriocin-producing Strain of Pseudomonas solanacearum on the Protection of Tobacco Plant from BacterialWilt. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 57: 24–31.
Hayward, A.C. 1974. Laten Infections by Bacteria. Annual Review of Phytopathology 12: 87–98.

Hayward, A.C. 1991. Biology and Epidemiology of Bacterial Wilt Caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum. Annual Review of Phytopathology 29:65–87.

Hayward, A.C. 1994. The Hosts of Pseudomonas solanacearum, p. 9–24. In A.C.
Hayward & G.L. Hartman (eds.), Bacterial Wilt, The Disease and its Causative Agent, Pseudomonas solanacearum. CAB. Wallingford. Irawati, A.F.C., T. Arwiyanto, & S.M. Widyastuti. 2003. Induced Resistance of Tomato against Bacterial Wilt with Pseudomonas putida and avirulent strain of Ralstonia solanacearum. Paper presented at the Scientific Seminar and XVII Congress of Indonesian Phytopathological Society. Bandung, Indonesia, 6th−8th August 2003. (In Indonesian).

Jackson, L.E. 1989. Bacteriophage Prevention and Control of Harmful Plant Bacteria. US Patent, Patent No. 4,828,999.

Jones, D.A., M.H. Ryder, B.G. Clare, S.K. Farand, & A. Kerr. 1991. Biological Control of Crown Gall Using Agrobacterium Strains K84 and K1026, p 161−170. In H. Komada, K. Kiritani, J. Bay-Petersen (eds.), The Biological Control of Plant Diseases. FTC Book Series No. 42, Vol. 42. Food and Fertilizer Technology Center for the Asian and Pacific Region Taipei, Taiwan.

Kelman, A. 1953. The Bacterial Wilt Caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum: A Literature Review and Bibliography. North CarolinaAgricultural Experimental Station Technical Bulletin No. 99. 194 p.

Kempe, J. & L. Sequeira. 1983. Biological Control of Bacterial Wilt of Potatoes: Attempts to Induce Resistance by Treating Tubers with Bacteria. Plant Disease 67: 499–503.

Kennedy, B.W. & S.M. Alcorn. 1980. Estimate of US Crop Losses to Prokaryote Plant Pathogens. Plant Disease 64: 674–676.

Kerr, A. 1980. Biological Control of Crown Gall Through Production of Agrocin 84. Plant Disease 64: 25–30.

Konisky, J. 1978. The Bacteriocin, p. 71–136. In L.N. Ornston & J.R. Sokatch (eds.) The Bacteria: A Treatise on Structure and Function. Vol. VI: Bacterial Diversity. Academic Press, New York.

Kurabachew, H. & K. Wydra. 2008. Characterization of Bacterial Antagonists and their Resistance Inducing Effect Against Bacterial Wilt Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum in Tomato. Abstract of 2nd International Symposium on Biological Control of Bacterial Plant Diseases November 4–7, 2008, Orlando, FL, USA.

Lang, J. M., D.H. Gent, & H.F. Schwartz. 2007. Management of Xanthomonas Leaf Blight of Onion with Bacteriophages and a Plant Activator. Plant Disease 91: 871–878.

Lindow, S.E. & M.T. Brandl. 2003. Microbiology of the Phyllosphere. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69: 1875–1883. Mayer, G. 2007. Bacteriology - chapter seven Bacteriophage., modified 21/3/14.

McSpadden Gardener, B.B., & D.R. Fravel. 2002. Biological Control of Plant Pathogens: Research, Commercialization, and Application in the USA. Online. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2002-0510-01-RV.

Mew, T.W., A.M. Alvarez, J.E. Leach, & J.Swings. 1993. Focus on Bacterial Blight of Rice. Plant Disease 77: 5–12. Murray, R.G.E. 1984. Kingdom Procaryotae, p. 21–22. In Buchanan, R.E. & N.E. Gibbons (eds.), Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. 8th ed. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, London.

Nguyen, M.T., S.L. Ranamukhaarachchi, & D.B. Hannaway. 2011. Efficacy of Antagonist Strains of Bacillus megaterium, Enterobacter cloacae, Pichia guilliermondii and Candida ethanolicaAgainst Bacterial Wilt Disease of Tomato. Journal of Phytology 3: 1–10.

Oda, M., Sekizawa,Y. & Watanabe, J. 1966. Phenazines as Disinfectants against Bacterial Leaf Blight of the Rice Plant. Applied Microbiology 14: 365−367.

Okabe, N. & M. Goto. 1963. Bacteriophages of Plant Pathogens. Annual Review of Phytopathology 1:397−418.

Phae, C.G., M. Shoda, N. Kita, M. Nakano, & K. Ushiyama. 1992. Biological Control of Crown and Root Rot and Bacterial wilt of tomato by Bacillus subtilis. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 58: 329–339.
Quimio, A.J. & Ayo, A.L. 1989. Biological Control of Tobacco Bacterial Wilt with Avirulent Bacteriocin Producer Strain of Pseudomonas solanacearum. 7th Int. Conf. Plant Path. Bact. Budapest.

Rovira, A.D.1965. Plant Root Exudates and their Influence Upon Soil Microorganisms, p 170–184. In K.F. Baker & W.C. Snyder (eds.), Ecology of Soil borne Plant Pathogens. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles.

Savary, S., L. Willocquet, F.A. Elazegui, P.S. Teng, P.V. Du, D. Zhu, Q. Tang, X. Lin, H.M. Singh, & R.K. Srivastava. 2000. Rice Pest Constraints in Tropical Asia: Characterization of Injury Profiles in Relation to Production Situations. Plant Disease 84: 341–356.

Schuster, M.L. & D.P. Coyne. 1974. Survival Mechanisms of Phytopathogenic Bacteria. Annual Review of Phytopathology 12: 199–221.

Tanaka, H., H. Negishi, & H. Maeda. 1990. Control of Tobacco Bacterial Wilt by Avirulent Strain of Pseudomonas solanacearum M4S and its Bacteriophage. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 56: 234–246.

Tanner, F.W. & F.W. Tanner Jr. 1948. Bacteriology, a Textbook of Microorganisms. 4th edition. John Wiley & Sons. New York. 625 p.

Trigalet, A. & D. Trigalet-Demery. 1990. Use of Avirulent Mutants of Pseudomonas solanacearum for the Biological Control of Bacterial Wilt of Tomato Plants. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 36: 27–38.

Trigalet, A., P. Frey, & D. Trigalet-Demery. 1994. Biological Control of Bacterial Wilt Caused by Pseudomonas solanacearum: State of the Art and Understanding, p. 225–233. In A.C. Hayward & G.L. Hartman (eds.), Bacterial Wilt, the Disease and its Causative Agent, Pseudomonas solanacearum. CAB. Wallingford. Vasudevan, P., S. Kavitha, V.B. Priyadarisini, J. Babujee, & S.S. Gnanamanickam. 2002. Biological Control of Rice Diseases, p. 11−32. In S.S. Gnanamanickam (ed.), Biological Control of Crop Diseases. Decker, New York.

Vidaver, A.K. & P.A. Lambrecht 2004. Bacteria as Plant Pathogens. The Plant Health Instructor. DOI: 10.1094/PHI-I-2004-0809-01.

Weller, D.M. 2007. Pseudomonas Biocontrol Agents of Soilborne Pathogens: Looking Back Over 30 Years. Phytopathology 97: 250–256.

Wuryandari, Y., T. Arwiyanto, B. Hadisutrisno, & I. Hartana. 2004. Survival of Pseudomonas putida Pf- 20 strain in Several Formulation. Indonesian Journal of Plant Protection 10: 33–41. (In Indonesian).

Wydra, K., J. Semrau, E. Dannon, & R. Diogo. 2005. Characterization of the Interaction of Antagonistic Bacteria and of Silicon (SiO2) with Tomato Infected with Ralstonia solanacearum, p. 112–118. In W. Zeller & C. Ullrich (eds.), Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Biological Control of Bacterial Plant Diseases. Seeheim/Darmstadt, Germany, 23rd–26th October 2005.

Yamada, T., T. Kawasaki, S. Nagata, A. Fujiwara, S. Usami, & M. Fujie. 2007. New bacteriophages that Infect the Phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. Microbiology 153: 2630–2639.

Zeller, W. & C. Ullrich (eds.). 2005. Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Biological Control of Bacterial Plant Diseases. Seeheim/Darmstadt, Germany, 23rd−26th October 2005.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 9852 | views : 3382


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2014 Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia ISSN 1410-1637 (print), ISSN 2548-4788 (online) is published by the Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada, in collaboration with Indonesian Entomological Society (Perhimpunan Entomologi Indonesia, PEI) and Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia, PFI). The content of this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.  

View website statistics