Paraquat Toxicity on The Growth of Rhizobium sp. in A Synthetic Medium

https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.12366

Erni Martani(1*)

(1) Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Toxicity of paraquat on the growth of several strains of Rhizobium sp. in Yeast Extract Mannitol medium was studied. Various concentrations of paraquat 100, ranged from O (control) to 100 ppm were applied. Qualitative examination was done using paper disc diffusion technique, and the quantitative examination was conducted based on the change in cell density in medium measured by plate count method.Qualitative data showed that effect or paraquat was species specific. Some strains of Rhizobium sp., namely Rhizobium sp. strain T-37 and QF, were tolerant to paraquat until100 ppm, but other strains were sensitive to paraquat, especially at high concentration.Quantitative examination to the sensitive strains shows that higher concentration of paraquat caused higher toxicity to the growth of Rhizobium. Rhizobium sp. strain G-69 and  G-182.paraquat addition at 100 ppm slightly decreased cell density from 10 to 10 CFU/mL. Rhizobium japonicum strains 143 and KS were tolerant to 20 and 40 ppm of paraquat; their cell density increased from 10^6 to a level of 10&7 or 10^8 CFU/mL depend on the strain. This level was not significantly lower than those in medium without paraquat, in which maximal population density reached to 10^8 or 10^9 CFU/mL. Addition of higher paraquat concentration damaged the cell of these strains, and caused population density increased specifically to a level of 10^1 CFU/mL. The data which showed that paraquat was toxic to Rhizobium sp. were important growth inhibitor, because growth inhibition of these bacteria may influence the formation of root nodule on leguminous plants, and in turn will decrease the yield. Due to widely applied paraquat in agricultural and plantation systems, and the role of Rhizobium in nitrigen fixation, these results are important for minimizing the impact of paraquat application.

Full Text:

PDF


References

Anderson, J .R. 1978. Pesticide Effects on Non-Target Soil Microorganisms. In Hill, LR. & Wright, S.J.L. (Eds.). Pesticide Microbiology: Microbiological Aspects of Pesticide Behaviour in The Environment. Acad. Press, London. P. 313 - 534.

Bergersen, F.J. 1975. Methods for Eva1uating Biological Nitrogen Fixation. A Wiley-Intersc. Publication.New York. 702 pp.

Biederbeck, V.O .. C.A. Campbell & J. Hunter. 1992. Long-term Influence of Glyphosate and Paraquat on Soil Microbial and Biochemical Characteristics in a Fallow- Wheat System in Dark Brown Soil. P. I - 4.

Carr, R.J.G., R.F. Bilton, & T. Atkinon. 1985. Mechanisms of Biodegradation of Paraquat by Lipomyces starkeyi. Appl. Environ. Microbial. 49: 1290 - 1294.

Carr, R.J .G., R.F. Bilton, & T. Atkinson. 1986. Toxicity of Paraquat to Microorganisms. Appl. Environ. Microbial. 52: 1112 - 1116.

Hammerschmidt, R. & J.A. Smith-Becker. 1999. The Role of Salicylic Acid in Disease Resistance. p. 37 - 53. In Agrawal, A.A., S.Tuzun, & E. Bent. (Eds.) Induced Plant Defenses Again Pathogen and Herbivores: Biochemistry, Ecology & Agriculture.

Hassan, H.M. 1979. Paraquat and Escherichia coli, Mechanisms of Production of Extracellular Superoxide Radical. J. Biol. Chem. 254: 10846 - 10852.

Karban, R. & J. Kue. 1999. Induced Resistance Again Pathogens and Herbivores: An Overview. p. 1 - 16. In Agrawal, A.A., S.Tuzun, & E. Bent. (Eds.) Induced Plant Defense Again Pathogen and Herbivores: Biochemistry, Ecology & Agriculture.

Katayama, A. & S. Kuwatsuka. 1992. Microflora with Long-Term Application of Paraquat. J. Pesticide Sci. 17: 137 - 139.

Martani, E., B.S. Sunarminto, A. Supriyo, & S. Handayani. 200Ja. Herbisida Parakuat dalam Lahan Gambut: II. Pengaruhnya terhadap Pertumbuhan Tanaman Kedelai. J. Perlind. Tan. Ind. 7. 22-31. M

artani, E., K. Wibowo, B. Radjagukguk, & S. Margino. 2001b. Influence of Paraquat Herbicide on Soil Bacteria, Rhizobium sp. J. Man. dan Lingk. 8: 82 - 90.

Naylor, R. 1996. Herbicide Use in Asian Rice Production: Perspectives from Economics, Ecology, and The Agricultural Sciences. p. 3 - 26. In Naylor, R (Ed). Herbicides In Asian Rice: Transition in Weed Management. IRRI. Los Banos, Philippines.

Rao., N.S.S. 1994. Mikroorganisme Tanah dan Pertumbuhan Tanaman. 2nd ed. UI Press. Jakarta. 76 pp.

Reiner, R. 1977. Antibiotics. In Korte, F & Goto, M. (Eds). Methodicum chimicum. Vol 11. Natural Compounds, Part 2. Antibiotics, Vitamins, and Hormones. Academic Press, New York. P. 2 -69.

Roughly, R.J. & D.J. Pulsford. 1982. Production and Control of Legume Inoculant. p. 193 - 209. In Vincent, .J. (Ed). Nitrogen Fixation in Legumes. Academic Press. Sydney.

Setyaningsih, R., E. Martani, & B.H. Sunarminto. 2001. Dinamika Populasi Mikro-organisme yang Berperan dalam Nitrifikasi di Beberapa Jenis Tanah Akibat Perlakuan Paraquat. BioSMART. 3: 14- 13.

Vincent, J.M. 1970. A Manual for The Practical Study of The Root-Nodule Bacteria. Burgess & Son Ltd. London. 164 pp.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.12366

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 357 | views : 109

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Accredited Journal, Based on Decree of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia Number 30/E/KPT/2018, Vol. 21 No. 1 the Year 2017 - Vol. 25 No. 1 the Year 2021. Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia ISSN 1410-1637 (print), ISSN 2548-4788 (online) is indexed by: :