Ketahanan Jamur terhadap Fungisida di Indonesia

https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.11869

Christanti Sumardiyono(1*)

(1) Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Plant diseases control with fungicides had been practised for decades in Indonesia. The orientation of consumers to have high quality agriculture product caused the intensif use of pesticides including fungicides. Systemic fungicides were used as therapeutant agens for disease control. Intensively used and sublethal dose of systemic fungicides induced fungi to be resistant. The purpose of this article was to describe the occurrence of developing fungicides resistance strains. Several publications reported that there were some fungicides which induced resistant strain i. e. benomyl and its metabolites, metalaxyl and simoksanyl. It was assumed that the resistant strain occurred due to the genetic of pathogens, mode of action of fungicides and method of application. Resistance to contact or nonsystemic fungicides was rare compared with systemic one. The single site action of systemic fungicides caused mutation of fungus to be resistant. This fenomena did not occure against contact fungicides with multisite actions. Among systemic fungicides, benomyl resistant strains were more frequently reported than the others. To avoid those problems the authors strongly suggested to use Integrated Pest Management in plant disease control. Reduced frequency of fungicides applications, using recommended dose and mixture of contact and systemic fungicides are several tactics to delay resistance. Risk assessment and monitoring of fungicides resistance at molecular level is also suggested.

 

Pengendalian penyakit secara kimia dengan fungisida telah lama dilakukan di Indonesia. Cara ini masih selalu dilakukan karena praktis dan dapat memenuhi tuntutan konsumen akan produk yang mulus dan berkualitas tinggi. Hal ini menyebabkan pemakaian fungisida kontak maupun sistemik terus meningkat. Ulasan ini bertujuan untuk membahas terjadinya ketahanan jamur terhadap fungisida. Beberapa peneliti telah melaporkan beberapa strain jamur telah tahan terhadap benomil dan metabolitnya. Di banyak negara telah dilaporkan bahwa pemakaian fungisida sistemik yang intensif telah menimbulkan strain jamur tahan. Sebaliknya kemunculan strain tahan terhadap fungisida kontak jarang ditemukan, karena cara kerja fungisida kontak yang tidak spesifik pada tubuh jamur. Fungisida sistemik mempunyai cara kerja yang spesifik sehingga mudah menimbulkan strain tahan. Ketahanan jamur terhadap fungisida benomil dan yang sekelompok paling banyak dilaporkan. Telah dilaporkan juga adanya jamur tahan terhadap metalaksil dan simoksanil. Besarnya risiko timbulnya strain jamur tahan terhadap fungisida dipengaruhi oleh faktor genetis patogen, jenis fungisida dan kekerapan serta lamanya aplikasi. Aplikasi fungisida sistemik berselang-seling dengan fungisida kontak atau penggunaan fungisida campuran antara kontak dan sistemik akan menurunkan risiko timbulnya jamur tahan. Perhitungan risiko (risk assesment) perlu dilakukan dengan pemantauan ketahanan jamur terhadap fungisida yang berkelanjutan. Pemantauan yang lebih pasti perlu dilakukan dengan cara molekuler. Prinsip Pengendalian Hama dan Penyakit secara Terpadu (PHT), perlu diintensifkan.


Keywords


fungicides; Indonesia; resistance; fungisida; jamur tahan

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References

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.11869

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