Resurjensi Serangga Hama Karena Perubahan Fisiologi Tanaman dan Serangga Sasaran Setelah Aplikasi Insektisida

https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.11766

Yuni Ratna(1*), Y. Andi Trisyono(2), Kasumbogo Untung(3), Didik Indradewa(4)

(1) Prodi Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Jambi
(2) Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada
(4) Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The use of insecticides at sub-lethal dosage may induce insect resurgence. Factors contributing the insect resurgence include mortality of natural enemies, mass migration, improvement in plant nutrition, or increase in insect reproductive capacity which works individually or in combinations. This article provides a comprehensive review from recent publications, particularly those dealing with the impact of insecticide applications on plant nutrition and insect reproduction, and function to upgrade our knowledge since most publications in Indonesia were made in the 1980s. The insecticides together with its metabolites and conjugates could function as plant growth regulators, increase absorption, improve the nutritional content, influence the biochemical and ultrastructural aspects of the plant, or protect the plant from stresses. An increase in the nutritional value of the plant would increase feeding rate, fecundity, and longevity of the insects. Furthermore, insecticides could also directly stimulate the reproductive capacity of the insect. All of these impacts might end up in increasing the population of insect after application of certain insecticides. Research findings related to the elucidation on the mechanism underlying the phenomenon of resurgence could be used in considering the registration of new insecticides or extension of the existing insecticides.

 

Salah satu dampak penggunaan insektisida khususnya pada dosis subletal adalah timbulnya resurjensi serangga hama. Resurjensi serangga hama dapat terjadi melalui mekanisme berkurang/matinya musuh alami, migrasi massal, peningkatan nutrisi tanaman, atau stimulasi langsung reproduksi serangga (hormoligosis), dimana masing-masing faktor bekerja sendiri atau kombinasi.Tulisan tentang resurjensi di Indonesia banyak dipublikasikan pada tahun 1980-an.Tulisan inimerupakan formulasi hasil penelitian terbaru tentang resurjensi, khususnya terkait dengan faktor tanaman dan serangga sasaran. Insektisida, metabolitnya ataupun konjugat yang terbentuk dalam tanaman dapat memacu pertumbuhan tanaman (plant growth regulator), memacu serapan hara, meningkatkan kandungan nutrisi tanaman, memengaruhi aspek ultrastruktural dan biokimia tanaman, atau sebagai pelindung stres tanaman. Insektisida juga dapat berperan langsung sebagai stimulan reproduksi serangga. Nutrisi tanaman akan mempengaruhi laju makan, keperidian, dan lama hidup (longevity) imago, yang pada akhirnya akan menuju pada resurjensi serangga hama. Hasil-hasil penelitian terbaru tentang mekanisme resurjensi serangga hama dapat digunakan sebagai bahan pertimbangan dalam pendaftaran insektisida baru.


Keywords


aplikasi insektisida; dosis subletal; insecticide application; insect resurgence; resurjensi serangga; sub-lethal dosage;

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