Pewarisan Sifat Ketahanan Tanaman Melon (Cucumis melo L.) terhadap Powdery Mildew (Podosphaera xanthii (Castag.) Braun et Shishkoff)

https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.11758

Budi Setiadi Daryono(1*), Muhammad Taufiq Qurrohman(2)

(1) Fakultas Biologi Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Fakultas Biologi Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that causes subtantial losses in melon production around the world including Indonesia. Resistant melon cultivar to powdery mildew is important to increase melon production. Hence, the objectives of this study were to study melon resistance against powdery mildew and its inheritance. A F2 population was obtained from self pollination between F1 ♀ 371795 which derived from ♀ PI 371795 X ♂Action 434 and F1 ♀Action 434 which derived from ♀ Action 434 X ♂ PI 371795. In addition, a test cross population was produce by crossing between F1 with Action 434 as a recessive homozygote pa-rent. Furthermore, powdery mildew resistance in a F1, F2 and test cross populations were tested by inoculating powdery mildew which collected from Ngawi regency. The results were evaluated by Chi-square test (χ2). The results showed that a F1, F2 and test cross populations have different resistance levels to powdery mildew. The resistance to powdery mildew in a F2 ♀ PI 371795 population showed segregation and have 3:1 ratio of Mendel inheritance pattern. On the other hand, resistance to powdery mildew in a test cross with PI 371795 as a parent showed segregation with 1:1 ratio. While resistance in a F2 ♀ Action 434 and test cross populations with Action 434 as a parent did not express Mendel inheritance pattern. Based on the result it could be concluded thatn resistance to powdery mildew in PI 371795 as a female parent is controlled by a single dominant gene (pm-I), while resistance to powdery mildew in action 434 as a female parent is suppose to be controlled by several genes (oligogene).

 

Melon (Cucumis melo L.) merupakan tanaman yang rentan terhadap hama dan penyakit. Powdery mildew (embun tepung) merupakan salah satu penyakit yang disebabkan oleh jamur tepung dan menyerang tanaman melon serta dapat menurunkan hasil produksi buah melon di seluruh dunia termasuk di Indonesia. Kultivar tanaman melon yang tahan terhadap powdery mildew diperlukan dalam meningkatkan hasil produksi buah melon. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari sifat ketahanan tanaman melon dan pola pewarisan sifat ketahanan tanaman melon terhadap powdery mildew. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan persilangan tanaman melon F1 ♀ PI 371795 yang merupakan hasil persilangan antara ♀ PI 371795 dengan ♂ Action 434 dan F1 ♀ Action 434 yang merupakan hasil persilangan antara Action 434 dengan ♂ PI 371795 untuk mendapatkan tanaman melon F2. Selain itu juga dilakukan persilangan buatan antara tanaman F1 dengan Action 434 sebagai induk yang homozigot resesif. Kemudian dilakukan uji sifat ketahanan tanaman melon terhadap powdery mildew pada populasi F1, F2 dan test cross melalui inokulasi jamur tepung yang dikoleksi dari Kabupaten Ngawi. Hasil uji sifat ketahanan tanaman melon tersebut dievaluasi dengan menggunakan tes chi-square (χ2 ). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tanaman melon pada populasi F1, F2 dan test cross memiliki tingkat ketahanan yang bervariasi terhadap powdery mildew. Sifat ketahanan tanaman melon pada populasi F2 ♀ PI 371795 mengalami segregasi dan mengikuti pola pewarisan Mendel dengan perbandingan 3:1. Demikian juga sifat ketahanan tanaman melon pada populasi test cross dengan induk PI 371795 mengikuti pola pewarisan Mendel dengan perbandingan 1:1. Sifat ketahanan tanaman melon pada populasi F2 ♀ Action 434 dan populasi test cross dengan induk Action 434 tidak mengikuti pola pewarisan Mendel. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian tersebut diketahui bahwa sifat ketahanan tanaman melon dengan induk betina PI 371795 dikendalikan oleh gen dominan tunggal (pm-I), sedangkan sifat ketahanan tanaman melon dengan induk betina Action 434 diduga dikendalikan oleh beberapa gen (oligogen).


Keywords


Cucumis melo L.; oligogene; powdery mildew; single dominant gene; gen dominan tunggal; oligogen

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.11758

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