Evaluasi Virulensi Virus Tungro dari Beberapa Daerah Endemi dan Uji Ketahanan Plasma Nutfah Padi

https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.11749

Suprihanto Suprihanto(1*), I Nyoman Widiarta(2), Dede Kusdiaman(3)

(1) Balai Besar Penelitain Tanaman Padi
(2) Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Pangan
(3) Balai Besar Penelitain Tanaman Padi
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of tungro virus virulence from some endemic areas, the suitability of planting resistant varieties, and resistance of rice germplasms. Tungro virus isolates were collected from tungro-endemic areas in North Sumatra, West Java, Central Java, South Sulawesi, West Sulawesi and Central Sulawesi. Tungro virus isolates were then inoculated using green leafhoppers Nephotettix virescens (Distant) to five differential varieties: Tukad Petanu, Bondoyudo, Kalimas, Tukad Balian, and Tukad Unda, and TN1 (as susceptible check). Level of virulence of tungro virus isolates and suitability planting of resistant varieties can be evaluated. Tungro virus isolate which has the highest virulence was used to test of resistant of rice germplasms. Results of tungro virulence test can be distinguished that there are 4 variants of virulence, namely: 073 (Subang, Bulukumba, Bantaeng, andWest Sulawesi isolates), 033 (Simalungun, Temanggung, and Palu), 031 (Kuningan andMagelang), and virulence 013 (Lanrang isolate). Tukad Petanu was still appropriate varieties to be planted in throughout the tungro-endemic areas (North Sumatra, West Java, Central Java, South Sulawesi, West Sulawesi, and Central Sulawesi). Bondoyudo variety still suitables to be planted in the areas of Simalungun, Kuningan, Magelang, Temanggung, Lanrang, and Palu. While Tukad Unda variety still have the suitability of planting for areas Kuningan, Magelang, and Temanggung. Between 100 assesions of germplasm which were tested to high virulence of tungro (073) one resistant assession has been identified (Deli assesion), and as many as 25 assesions showed moderately resistant reaction.

 

Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi tingkat virulensi virus tungro dari beberapa daerah endemi, kesesuaian tanam varietas tahan, dan ketahanan asesi plasmanutfah padi. Isolat virus tungro dikoleksi dari daerah endemi tungro di Sumut, Jabar, Jateng, Sulsel, Sulbar, dan Sulteng. Isolat-isolat virus tungro tersebut kemudian ditularkan menggunakan wereng hijauNephotettix virescens (Distant) pada 5 varietas diferensial yaitu Tukad Petanu, Bondoyudo, Kalimas, Tukad Balian, dan Tukad Unda, serta TN1 sebagai kontrol rentan. Tingkat virulensi isolat dan kesesuaian tanam varietas tahan kemudian dapat dievaluasi. Isolat tungro dengan virulensi yang paling tinggi selanjutnya digunakan untuk uji ketahanan asesi plasmanutfah padi sebagai bahan tetua tahan. Hasil uji virulensi tungro dapat dibedakan ada 4 varian virulensi, yaitu: 073 (isolat Subang, Bulukumba, Bantaeng, dan Polewali Mandar), 033 (isolat Simalungun, Temanggung, dan Palu), 031 (isolat Kuningan dan Magelang), dan virulensi 013 (isolat Lanrang). Varietas Tukad Petanu masih sesuai untuk ditanam di seluruh daerah endemi tungro (Sumut, Jawa Barat, Jawa tengah, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Barat, dan Palu). Varietas Bondoyudo masih mempunyai kesesuaian tanam di daerah Simalungun, Kuningan, Magelang, Temanggung, Lanrang, dan Palu. Sedangkan Varietas Tukad Unda masih mempunyai kesesuaian tanam untuk daerah Kuningan, Magelang, dan Temanggung. Dari sebanyak 100 asesi plasmanutfah yang diuji ketahanannya terhadap tungro virulensi tinggi (073) telah teridentifikasi satu asesi tahan (Deli), dan sebanyak 25 asesi yang menunjukkan reaksi agak tahan.


Keywords


evaluasi; evaluation; plasma nutfah padi; rice germplasm, screening resintance, tungro virus; uji ketahanan; virulence; virulensi; virus tungro

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpti.11749

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