Prattama Santoso Utomo(1*), Arta Farmawati(2), James Degnan(3), Rachmadya Nur Hidayah(4), Rilani Riskiyana(5), Gandes Retno Rahayu(6)

(1) Department of Medical Education and Bioethics Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Department of Biochemistry Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(3) Temple University, Philadelphia, USA
(4) Department of Medical Education and Bioethics Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(5) Department of Medical Education and Bioethics Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(6) Department of Medical Education and Bioethics Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Background: Medical students in Indonesia are required to pass a national licensing examination (e.g., UKMPPD) as a requirement of graduation and to obtain their certificate of competence. Medical schools prepared their students based on their needs and capacity. The preparation might use different teaching approaches. Undergraduate medicine program in Universitas Gadjah Mada conducts a national licensing examination preparation program facilitated by both faculty members and peer tutors. The peer tutors are newly graduated medical doctors who were recruited and trained. The use of trained peer tutors in a structured program to prepare high-stake examination such as a national examination is considered novel. This paper aims to describe a peer-assisted learning (PAL) approach used to prepare medical students in facing a national licensing examination.

Case Discussion: A preparation program using faculty and peer tutors was deployed to prepare final-year medical students for facing the Indonesian national licensing examination. The ratio of sessions facilitated by faculty to peer tutors was 1:2. The preparation included CBT and OSCE training. Sessions with faculty used a medium to large class approach while sessions with peer tutors used a small to medium group approach. Through February 2020, 147 students have participated in the program. A questionnaire was developed to measure agreement that the program was successful and if the tutees were satisfied with various aspects of the program. The tutees responded with high rates of satisfaction to most items on the questionnaire  (responses for all but one item ranged between 72.1% and 90.5% in favorable agreement or satisfaction). The one exception was CBT preparation where the level of satisfaction was lower (54.4% rated CBT favorably). Participants highly valued the involvement and the performance of peer tutors.

Conclusion: The use of near-peer assisted learning for national licensing examination preparation has strong potential. Further study is required to investigate the impact of the peer-assisted national licensing examination preparation program on students’ achievement and clinical practice.


national licensing examination, preparation program, peer tutor, peer-assisted learning

Full Text:



  1. Herrmann-Werner A, Gramer R, Erschens R, Nikendei C, Wosnik A, Griewatz J, et al. Peer-assisted learning (PAL) in undergraduate medical education: An overview. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes. 2017;121:74-81.
  2. Olaussen A, Reddy P, Irvine S, Williams B. Peer-assisted learning: time for nomenclature clarification. Medical Education Online. 2016;21(1):30974.
  3. Zijdenbos IL, de Haan MC, Valk GD, ten Cate OT. A student-led course in clinical reasoning in the core curriculum. IJME. 2010;1:42-6.
  4. Saputra O, Widyandana, Hadianto T. Persepsi terhadap ‘training from senior student’ dalam penguasaan keterampilan klinik. JPKI. 2014;3(2):108-19.
  5. Carr SE, Brand G, Wei L, Wright H, Nicol P, Metcalfe H, et al. "Helping someone with a skill sharpens it in your own mind": a mixed method study exploring health professions students experiences of Peer Assisted Learning (PAL). BMC Med Educ. 2016;16:48.
  6. Aba Alkhail B. Near-peer-assisted learning (NPAL) in undergraduate medical students and their perception of having medical interns as their near peer teacher. Med Teach. 2015;37 Suppl 1:S33-9.
  7. House JB, Choe CH, Wourman HL, Berg KM, Fischer JP, Santen SA. Efficient and Effective Use of Peer Teaching for Medical Student Simulation. West J Emerg Med. 2017;18(1):137-41.
  8. Lockspeiser TM, O'Sullivan P, Teherani A, Muller J. Understanding the experience of being taught by peers: the value of social and cognitive congruence. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2008;13(3):361-72.
  9. Masters K. Edgar Dale's Pyramid of Learning in medical education: a literature review. Med Teach. 2013;35(11):e1584-93.
  10. Peets AD, Coderre S, Wright B, Jenkins D, Burak K, Leskosky S, et al. Involvement in teaching improves learning in medical students: a randomized cross-over study. BMC Med Educ. 2009;9:55-.
  11. PNUKMPPD. Umpan Balik UKMPPD Periode Agustus 2019 untuk Institusi: Universitas Gadjah Mada. Jakarta: PNUKMPPD - Kemendikbud; 2019.
  12. Mohanna K, Cottrell E, Wall D, Chambers R. Teaching made easy: a manual for health professionals. 3rd ed. Oxford: Radcliffe Publishing; 2011.
  13. Yap R, Moreira A, Wilkins S, Reeves F, Levinson M, McMurrick P. Suturing in small group teaching settings: a modification to Peyton’s four-step approach. Med Sci Educ. 2016;26(4):575-80.
  14. Tolsgaard MG, Gustafsson A, Rasmussen MB, Hoiby P, Muller CG, Ringsted C. Student teachers can be as good as associate professors in teaching clinical skills. Med Teach. 2007;29(6):553-7.
  15. Weyrich P, Celebi N, Schrauth M, Moltner A, Lammerding-Koppel M, Nikendei C. Peer-assisted versus faculty staff-led skills laboratory training: a randomised controlled trial. Med Educ. 2009;43(2):113-20.
  16. Hill E, Liuzzi F, Giles J. Peer-assisted learning from three perspectives: student, tutor and co-ordinator. Clin Teach. 2010;7:244-6.
  17. Abay ES, Turan S, Odabasi O, Elcin M. Who Is the Preferred Tutor in Clinical Skills Training: Physicians, Nurses, or Peers? Teach Learn Med. 2017;29(3):247-54.
  18. Utomo PS, Shitarukmi S, Kurniawati N, Widyandana W. Comparing The Effectiveness of LED TV/LCD and Whiteboard as a Learning Media in PBL Tutorial Discussion in a Medical School at Indonesia. Jurnal Pendidikan Kedokteran Indonesia: The Indonesian Journal of Medical Education. 2019;8(3):129-35.
  19. Morrison J. Evaluation. In: Cantillon P, Wood D, editors. ABC of learning and teaching in medicine. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 2010.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1001 | views : 1330


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Prattama Santoso Utomo, Arta Farmawati, James Degnan, Rachmadya Nur Hidayah, Rilani Riskiyana, Gandes Retno Rahayu

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Pendidikan Kedokteran Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Medical Education) indexed by: