Luaran Maternal pada Ibu Hamil dengan Covid-19 di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta Studi Kohort Retrospektif

Kartika Wahyuningtyas Utami(1*), Irwan Taufiqur Rachman(2), Detty Siti Nurdiati(3)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author


Background: Coronavirus is a disease at the end of 2019 caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which now was declared a pandemic by WHO on March 11, 2020. Indonesia reported the first case of COVID-19 on March 2, 2020 and the number still increase until now. The studies of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnancy and maternal outcomes are still uncertain since evidence regarding the disease is still ongoing.  Moreover, the pregnant women have a higher risk of morbidity and mortality than the general population.

Objective: This study aimed to determined the relationship among COVID-19 in pregnancy with maternal outcome at Yogyakarta

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study. The subjects were pregnant women who were diagnosed confirm COVID-19. The research subjects were taken     at Dr. Sardjito Hospital and Akademik UGM Hospital from March 2020 to August 2021.

Results and Discussion: Among all 436 research subjects, obtained 340 sampels that met the criteria for analysis. The characteristics of subjects showed patients with aged >35 years (58.24%), and gestational age ≥37 weeks (79.41%). There were correlated significantly  between confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 in pregnant women with prematurity (RR 2,42, CI 95% 1,44–4.04), requiring ICU (RR 53.89, CI 95% 3.33–870.45), length of stay (RR 1.97, CI 95% 1,05–3,68), and maternal mortality maternal (RR 38.08, CI 95% 2,34–619,83) compared with asymptomatic COVID-19. There was no correlated significantly   (p>0.05) between COVID-19 in pregnancy with mode of delivery.  Age, obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus have no correlated significantly  with maternal outcomes

Conclusion: Pregnancy as an independent risk factor for symptomatic COVID-19 that is likely independent of other comorbidities. Pregnant women who symptomatic COVID-19 increase the risk of worse maternal outcome compare with asymptomatic COVID-19. The mode of delivery decided based on medical and obstetric indication.

Keywords : COVID-19; pregnancy; co-morbidities; maternal outcomes


COVID-19; pregnancy; co-morbidities; maternal outcomes


  1. Aziz MA, Chalid MT, Saroyo YB, Budayasa R, Irwinda R, Akbar MIA. Rekomendasi Penanganan Virus Corona (COVID-19) Pada Maternal (Hamil, Bersalin, dan Nifas) [Internet]. JKT (Indonesia): POGI; c2020 [cited ]. Available from:
  2. Ardian M, Laksana C, Habibie PH, Wardhana MP, Erza K. Situation report: maternal health management during COVID-19 pandemic at soetomo general hospital and universitas airlangga academic hospital, surabaya indonesia. Sys Rev Pharm. 2020;11:467–71
  3. Breslin N, Baptiste C, Gyamfi-Bannerman C, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 infection among asymptomatic and symptomatic pregnant women: Two weeks of confirmed presentations to an affiliated pair of New York City hospitals. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2020;2:100118.
  4. Chen, Yanfen, & Bai, J. (2020). Maternal and infant outcomes of full-term pregnancy combined with COVID-2019 in Wuhan, China: retrospective case series. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 1–7.
  5. Docherty AB, Harrison EM, Green CA, et al, ISARIC4C investigators. Features of 20 133 UK patients in hospital with covid-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol: prospective observational cohort study. BMJ 2020;369:m1985. doi:10.1136/ bmj.m1985
  6. Gennaro, F. Di, Pizzol, D., Marotta, C., Antunes, M., Racalbuto, V., Veronese, N., & Smith, L. (2020). Coronavirus Diseases ( COVID-19 ) Current Status and Future Perspectives : A Narrative Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public HealthEnvironmental Research and Public Health, 17(2690), 1–11. 82690
  7. Jose Villar,MD, Shabina Ariff MD, Robert B.Gunier,PhD et al. Maternal and Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality Among Pregnant Women With and Without COVID-19 InfectionThe INTERCOVID Multinational Cohort Study. JAMA Pediatr. 2021;175(8):817-826. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.1050
  8. Lingeswaran, M., Goyal, T., Ghosh, R., & Suri, S. (2020). Inflammation , Immunity and Immunogenetics in COVID-19 : A Narrative Review. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 35(3), 260–273. 020-00897-3
  9. Manon Vouga, Guillaume Favre1, Oscar Martinez‐Perez,. et al., Maternal outcomes and risk factors for COVID‐19 severity among pregnant women. . Nature portofolio 2021.
  10. Megan CO, Annessa SK, Ebony B.Carter, et al. Pregnancy as a risk factor for severe coronavirus disease 2019 using standardized clinical criteria. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM. 2021 May; 3(3): 100319
  11. Metz TD, Clifton RG, Hughes BL, Sandoval GJ, Grobman WA, Saade GR, et al. Association of SARS-CoV-2 Infection With Serious Maternal Morbidity and Mortality From Obstetric Complications. JAMA. 2022 Feb 22;327(8):748–59. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.1190
  12. Mor G, Aldo P, Alvero A. The unique immunological and microbial aspects of pregnancy. Nature Rev Immunol. 2017;17(8):469-82.
  13. Polónia-Valente, R., Moucho, M., Tavares, M., Vilan, A., Montenegro, N., & Rodrigues, T. (2020). Vaginal delivery in a woman infected with SARS-CoV-2 - The first case reported in Portugal. European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology, 250, 253–254
  14. Rangchaikul, P., and Venketaraman, V. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 and the immune response in pregnancy with delta variant considerations. Infect Dis. Rep. 13, 993–1008.
  15. Rees EM, Nightingale ES, Jafari Y, Waterlow NR, Clifford S, Pearson CA, et al. COVID-19 length of hospital stay: a systematic review and data synthesis. Medrxiv. 2020:1-30
  16. RCOG (2020) ‘Coronavirus ( COVID-19 ) Infection in Pregnancy’, (June).
  17. Society for Maternal Fetal Medicine. Management Considerations for Pregnant Patients With COVID-19 February 2, 2021; updated from earlier versions on January 7, 2021 and July 2, June 16; and April 30, 2020)
  18. UKOSS MBRRACE Infographic v13, 2021, UKOSSInfographic MBRRACE UK Rapid COVID-19 DEC 2021 Infographic v13.Pdf ( UK Rapid COVID-19 DEC 2021 Infographic v13.pdf.
  19. Vousden, N., Bunch, K., Morris, E., Simpson, N., Gale, C., O’Brien, P., etal. The incidence, characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women hospitalized with symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in the UK from March to September 2020: a national cohort study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS). PLoS One 2021;16(5):e0251123
  20. Valente P, Iarossi G, Federici M, Petroni S, Palma P, Cotugno N, et al. Ocular manifestations and viral shedding in tears of pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019: a preliminary report. J Am Assoc Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2020. 10.1016/j.jaapos.2020.05.002.
  21. Zaigham M, Andersson O. Maternal and perinatal outcomes with COVID-19: a systematic review of 108 pregnancies. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2020;99:823–9


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 803


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Kesehatan Reproduksi Indexed by:



Departemen Obstetri dan Ginekologi, FK-KMK, UGM/RS Dr. Sardjito
Jl. Kesehatan No. 1, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281
Tlp: (0274) 511329 / Faks: (0274) 544003
Cp: Dwi Astuti +6281802698043