Dinamika Suksesi Vegetasi pada Areal Pasca Perladangan Berpindah di Kalimantan Tengah

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.52433

Ardiatma Maulana(1*), Priyono Suryanto(2), Widiyatno Widiyatno(3), Eny Faridah(4), Bambang Suwignyo(5)

(1) Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(4) Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(5) Fakultas Peternakan, Universitas Gadjah Mada,
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Indonesia memiliki luasan hutan hujan tropis terluas nomor tiga setelah Brazil dan Afrika. Namun, tingkat degradasi hutan yang tinggi di Indonesia menyebabkan negara ini menjadi salah satu penyumbang emisi gas rumah kaca terbesar di dunia. Salah satu penyebab turunnya luasan hutan tropis di Indonesia adalah praktek perladangan berpindah. Suksesi vegetasi pasca perladangan berpindah dapat memberikan layanan ekologis berupa peningkatan tutupan vegetasi dan perbaikan sifat tanah yang jarang sekali terekspose pada tingkat lanjut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dinamika suksesi vegetasi pada
lahan pasca perladangan berpindah tingkat lanjut. Penelitian dinamika suksesi vegetasi dilakukan dengan pengambilan sampel tanaman bawah, semai sapihan dan pohon di lahan pasca perladangan dengan tiga umur yang berbeda, yaitu bera muda (1 – 10 tahun), bera sedang (11 – 20 tahun), bera tua (> 20 tahun), dan hutan alam dengan menggunakan metode petak bersarang dengan plot yang ditempatkan secara sistematik. Analisis vegetasi dengan menggunakan Indeks Nilai Penting, Kelimpahan Jenis, Keragaman, dan Kemerataan. Analisis varian dengan uji lanjut DMRT digunakan jika hasil dari tiap index vegetasi berbeda signifikan antar umur perladangan. Adanya pola peningkatan serta perbedaan yang nyata (P < 0,05) antara kelimpahan dan keragaman jenis vegetasi penyusun lahan bera sedang dengan lahan bera tua pada tingkatan pohon kecuali vegetasi penyusun tanaman bawah. Nilai keragaman dan kelimpahan jenis tingkat pohon lahan bera tua tidak berbeda nyata dengan hutan alam namun memiliki komposisi yang berbeda.

The Dynamics of Succession of Vegetation in the Post-Shifting Cultivation Area in Central Kalimantan

Abstract

Indonesia’s forests is the third largest tropical forest after Brazil and Africa. However, the high rate of forest degradation in Indonesia led this country become one of the most largest contributor of greenhouse gas emissions in the world. One of the causes of the degradation of tropical forest in Indonesia is the shifting cultivation practice. The succession of vegetation after shifting cultivation practice can provide ecological services such as increasing vegetation cover and improving soil properties but takes too long to recover. This study aims to understand the dynamics of vegetation succession in the post-shifting cultivation advanced stage. This study was conducted using systematical nested sampling method to take sample of shurb and herbs, and trees, including, seedling and, sapling growth stage form three different stage of post-shifting cultivation land areas, ie young fallow (1 - 10 years), intermediate fallow (11 - 20 years), old fallow (> 20 years), and natural forest. The vegetation data were then analyzed using Important Value, Species Richness, Diversity and Evenness Indices. Analysis of variance with post-hoc test of DMRT assays was used if the results each vegetation indices differed significantly between stage of post-shifting cultivation land. The Species Richness and Diversity Index of shurb and herb, seedling, sapling, and tree have significantly increased (P < 0,05) except the herb and shrub communities. The Species richness and Diversity Index of tree stage of old fallow were not significantly different from natural forest but it was composed with different species.


Keywords


diversity; forest degradation; shifting cultivation; species richness; succession dynamic; degradasi hutan; dinamika suksesi; kekayaan jenis; keragaman jenis; perladangan berpindah

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.52433

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