Status Ergonomi Pekerja Sektor Kehutanan di Indonesia: Kelelahan Fisik-Mental-Sosial, Kepuasan Kerja, Konsep Sumber Bahaya, dan Konsep Biaya Kecelakaan

https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.52140

Efi Yuliati Yovi(1*)

(1) Departemen Manajemen Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Institut Pertanian Bogor
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Pengelolaan hutan lestari menuntut perhatian terhadap perlindungan keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja (K3), selain perhatian terhadap aspek produktivitas kerja, dan kesejahteraan pengelola/pekerjanya. Di Indonesia, ke-empat aspek tersebut, yang merupakan tujuan utama kajian ergonomi, belum banyak mendapat perhatian, walau kegiatan pengelolaan hutan merupakan kegiatan dengan risiko gangguan K3 yang tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyajikan gambaran kondisi kelelahan fisikmental-sosial, gangguan otot, kepuasan kerja, persepsi terhadap sumber bahaya, dan persepsi terhadap biaya kecelakaan kerja dalam kegiatan pengelolaan hutan di Indonesia. Status kelelahan diukur menggunakan instrumen Cumulative Fatigue Symptom Index (CFSI) dan gangguan otot diinvestigasi menggunakan instrumen Standardized Nordic Questionnaire (SNQ). Kepuasan kerja dan persepsi terhadap sumber bahaya dan biaya kecelakaan ditelusuri menggunakan kuisioner dan wawancara (tatap muka, pertanyaan terbuka dan semi terstruktur). Data diambil dari 98 responden yang terdiri atas polisi hutan, tenaga inventarisasi hutan, pengawas/mandor penebangan, dan staf administrasi selama Februari 2016–Oktober 2017. Analisis CFSI menunjukkan bahwa kegiatan penjagaan hutan dan inventarisasi hutan telah menyebabkan gangguan kelelahan fisik dan mental yang intens (dalam bentuk gangguan kecemasan). Analisis SNQ mengonfirmasi keluhan gangguan otot pada pinggang, punggung, leher, bahu, serta lengan (bawah-atas). Secara umum responden memiliki (1) keterbatasan secara finansial, (2) tingkat pengetahuan yang belum memadai untuk mengenali berbagai sumber bahaya potensial di tempat kerja, dan (3) pemahaman yang kurang tepat terhadap konsep biaya kecelakaan. Keterbatasan aspek kognitif responden menyebabkan penggunaan mekanisme K3 partisipasif semata (untuk meningkatkan perlindungan K3) bukanlah keputusan yang tepat. Upaya peningkatan perlindungan K3 perlu dilakukan dalam bentuk (1) peningkatan fasilitas kerja (fasilitas kesehatan, saranasarana sosial dan komunikasi, aksesibilitas), (2) peningkatan pendapatan, dan (3) peningkatan pemahaman terhadap konsep sumber bahaya dan konsep biaya kecelakaan kerja.

Ergonomics Status of Indonesian Forestry Workers: Physical-Mental-Social Fatigue, Job Satisfaction, Concept of Hazards, and Concept of Accident Cost

Abstract

Sustainable forest management requires attention to the protection of occupational safety and health (OSH), in addition to attention to aspects of work productivity, and the welfare of managers/workers. In Indonesia, these four aspects, which are the main objectives of ergonomics studies, have not received much attention, although forest management activities are activities with a high risk of OSH disorders. This study aims to present an overview of the conditions of physical-mental-social fatigue, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), job satisfaction, perception of hazards sources, and perception toward work accident costs from workers involved in forest management activities in Indonesia. Fatigue status was measured using the Cumulative Fatigue Symptom Index (CFSI) and MSDs were investigated using Standardized Nordic Questionnaire (SNQ). Job satisfaction, perception of the source of danger, and the cost of accidents were traced using questionnaires and interviews (face to face, open and semi-structured questions). Data were taken from 98 respondents consisting of forest rangers, forest inventory workers, logging supervisors, and administrative staff during February 2016–October 2017. The CFSI analysis shows that forest guarding and forest inventory have caused intense physical and mental fatigue (in the form of excessive anxiety). The SNQ analysis confirms intense MSDs complaints at the waist, back, neck, shoulders, and arm. The general characteristics of the respondents were having: (1) limited financial capacity, (2) inadequate knowledge to recognize various potential hazards sources at work, and (3) inappropriate understanding of the concept of accident costs. The limitations on the respondents’ cognitive, has made participatory OSH mechanisms alone (to improve OSH protection) is not an appropriate option. Efforts to improve OHS protection should be carried out in the form of (1) improving workplace facilities (health facilities, social and communication facilities, accessibility), (2) improving remuneration, and (3) improving knowledge on the concepts of the source of hazards and accident cost.


Keywords


forest ergonomics; forest management; MSDs; OSH protection; risk management

Full Text:

PDF


References

Applebaum D, Fowler S, Fiedler N, Osinubi O, Robson M. 2010. The impact of environmental factors on nursing stress, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. Journal of Nursing Administration 40:323–328.

Arshadi N, Damiri H. 2013. The relationship of job stress with turnover intention and job performance: Moderating role of OBSE. Procedia-Social Behavioral Sciences 84:706–710. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.06.631

Barbosa RP, Fiedler NC, do Carmo FCA, Minette LJ, Silva EN. 2014. Analysis of posture in semi-mechanized forest harvesting in steep areas. Revista Arvore 38(4):733–738. DOI: 0.1590/S0100-67622014000400016

Brockner J. 1984. Low self-esteem and behavioral plasticity:Some implications for personality and social self-esteem. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 6:349–360.

Burgess-Limerick R. 2018. Participatory ergonomics: Evidence and implementation lessons. Applied Ergonomics 68: 289–293. DOI: 10.1016/j.apergo.2017.12.009

Castner L, Mabli J. 2010. Low-income household spending pattern and measures of poverty [Online]. https://fns-prod.azureedge.net/sites/default/files/Spending-Patterns.pdf. Dialses 25 April 2018.

Gallis C. 2006. Work-related prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among Greek forest workers. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 36(8):731–736. DOI:10.1016/j. ergon.2006.05.007

Gyekye SA. 2005. Workers’ Perceptions of Workplace Safety and Job Satisfaction. Internatioal Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics 11(3):291–302. DOI:10.1080/10803548.2005.11076650,

Hignett S, McAntamney L. 2000. Technical note rapid entire body assessment (REBA). Applied Ergonomics 31(2): (201–205).

Hrymak V, JD Pérezgonzález. 2007. The costs and effects of workplace accidents: Twenty case studies from Ireland. Health and Safety Authority Research Series 02/2007.

Kemm J. 2006. The limitations of ‘evidence-based’ public health. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12(3): 319–324. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2753.2006.00600.x

Kosugo R, Fujii H. 1987. An index for rating cumulative fatigue symptoms (CFSI) in different occupations. Journal Science of Labour 63:229–246.

Kosugo R, Fujii H, Hirata A. 1992. Subjective assessment of workload. Revision of the Cumulative Fatigue Symptoms Index. Journal Science of Labour 68:489–502.

Kuorinka I, Jonsson B, Kilbom A, Vinterberg H, Biering-Sørensen F, Andersson G, Jørgensen K. 1987. Standardised Nordic questionnaire for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms. Applied Ergonomics 18(3): 233–237.

Lerman SE, Eskin E, Flower DJ, George EC, Gerson B, Hartenbaum N, Hursh SR, Moore-Ede M. 2012. ACOEM Guidance Statement: Fatigue Risk Management in the Workplace. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 54(2):231–258.

Macintyre S, Petticrew M. 2000. Good intentions and received wisdom are not enough. Journal of Epidemioloy and Community Health 54(11):802–803.

KLHK. 2007. Peraturan Menteri Kehutanan RI Nomor: P.34/Menhut-II/2007 tentang Pedoman Inventarisasi Hutan Menyeluruh Berkala (IHMB) pada Usaha Pemanfaatan Hasil Hutan Kayu pada Hutan Produksi. Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan, Jakarta.

Orton L, Lloyd-Williams F, Taylor-Robinson D, O’Flaherty M, Capewell S. 2011. The use of research evidence in public health decision making processes: Systematic review. PLoS ONE 6(7): e21704. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021704

Rehn B, Nilsson T, Lundström R, Hagberg M, Burström L. 2009. Neck pain combined with arm pain among professional drivers of forest machines and the association with whole-body vibration exposure. Ergonomics 52(10): 1240–1247. DOI: 10.1080/00140130902939889

Shin WS. 2007. The influence of forest view through a window on job satisfaction and job stress. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 22(3): 248–253. DOI: 10.1080/02827580701262733

Shobe K. 2018. Productivity driven by job satisfaction, physical work environment, management support and job autonomy. Bussiness and Economics Journal 9(2):351. DOI: 10.4172/2151-6219.1000351

Silva EP, Minette LJ, Sanches ALP, de Souza AP, Silva FL, Mafra SCT. 2014. Prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in forest harvesting machine operators. Revista Arvore 38(4): 739–745. DOI: 10.1590/S0100-67622014000400017

Tumen S, Zeydanli T. 2016. Social interactions in job satisfaction. International Journal of Manpower 37: 426–455.

UN. 1992. Report of The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) Document A/CONF.151/26 (Vol.III), Forest Principle. http://www.un.org/documents/ga/conf151/aconf15126-3annex3.htm. Diakses 30 November 2016.

Yoshimura T, Acar HH. 2004. Occupational safety and health conditions of forestry workers in Turkey. Journal of Forest Research 9:225–232. DOI: 10.1007/s10310-004-0078-y

Yovi EY, Nurrochmat DR. 2018. An occupational ergonomics in the Indonesian state mandatory sustainable forest management instrument: A review. Forest Policy and
Economics 91:27–35. DOI: 10.1016/j.forpol.2017.11.007

Yovi EY, Yamada Y. 2019. Addressing occupational ergonomics issues in Indonesian forestry: Laborer, operator, or equivalent workers. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering 40(2): 351-365. DOI: 10.5552/croffe.2019.558.

Yovi EY, Yamada Y. 2015. Strategy to disseminate occupational safety and health information to forestry workers: The felling safety game. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 27(2): 213–221.

Yovi EY, Yamada Y, Zaini MF, Kusumadewi CAY, Marisiana L. 2016. Improving the OSH knowledge of Indonesian forestry workers by using safety game application: Tree felling supervisors and operators. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika 22(1):75–85. DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.22.1.75.

Yovi EY, Pradjawati W. 2015. High risk posture on motor-manual short wood logging system in Acacia mangium plantation. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika XXI(1):11–18. DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.21.1.11

Yovi EY, Takimoto Y, Ichihara K, Matsubara C. 2005. A study of workload and work efficiency in timber harvesting by using chainsaw in pine plantation forest in Java Island: Clear cutting operation. Applied Forest Science 14(1):17–26.

Yovi EY, Takimoto Y, Ichihara K, Matsubara C. 2006. A study of workload and work efficiency in timber harvesting by using chainsaw in pine plantation forest in Java Island (2): Thinning operation. Applied Forest Science 15(1):23–31.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jik.52140

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 143 | views : 225

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


© Redaksi Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan
Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gadjah Mada
Jl. Agro No 1, Bulaksumur, Sleman 55281
Telp. (0274) 512102, 550541, 6491420
Fax. (0274) 550541 E-mail : jik@ugm.ac.id
website : jurnal.ugm.ac.id/jikfkt/

 

Indexed by:

 

Jurnal Ilmu Kehutanan/Journal Forest Science is under the license of Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International

Creative Commons License

View My Stats