Multi Inang Fungi Ektomikoriza pada Dipterocarpaceae di Hutan Tropis

Maliyana Ulfa(1*), Eny Faridah(2), Su See Lee(3), Sumardi Sumardi(4), Christine le Roux(5), Antoine Galiana(6), Patahayah Mansor(7), Marc Ducousso(8)

(1) Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mad
(3) Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM), Selangor, Kepong, Malaysia
(4) Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(5) Laboratoire des symbioses tropicales et méditerranéennes (LSTM), Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), Campus International de Baillarguet, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
(6) Laboratoire des symbioses tropicales et méditerranéennes (LSTM), Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), Campus International de Baillarguet, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
(7) Forest Research Institute of Malaysia (FRIM), Selangor, Kepong, Malaysia
(8) Laboratoire des symbioses tropicales et méditerranéennes (LSTM), Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), Campus International de Baillarguet, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
(*) Corresponding Author


Dipterocarpaceae dikenal sebagai keluarga vegetasi hutan dominan di hutan tropis yang memiliki simbiosis mutualisme dengan fungi ektomikoriza. Hal tersebut menjadikan pemulihan hutan tropis bergantung pada keberadaan fungi ektomikoriza. Peranan fungi ektomikoriza dalam mendukung regenerasi dijumpai dalam bentuk multi inang yang dapat terindikasi dari penggunaan secara bersama jenis fungi ektomikoriza antar tanaman. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis fungi ektomikoriza yang berasosiasi dengan dipterocarpaceae di tingkat pohon dan semai, serta mengetahui adanya multi inang fungi ektomikoriza pada kedua tingkat pertumbuhan tersebut. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan mengidentifikasi ektomikoriza melalui pendekatan molekuler dengan menggunakan teknik Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Urutan ekstrak DNA diperkuat menggunakan pasangan primer spesifik ITS 1F-ITS 4. Identitas fungi ektomikoriza diperoleh dari pencocokan urutan DNA sampel terhadap database Genbank. Berdasarkan hasil identifikasi, jenis-jenis fungi ektomikoriza yang berasosiasi dengan dipterocarpaceae di tingkat pohon dan semai mempunyai hubungan kekerabatan dengan kelas Dothideomycetesdan ordo Sordariales, Sebacinales, Cantharellales, Russulales, Agaricales, Boletales, dan Thelephorales. Penelitian juga menemukan multi inang fungi ektomikoriza terhadap dipterocarpaceae, baik pada jenis maupun tingkatan pertumbuhan inang yang berbeda (semai dan pohon). Jenis fungi ektomikoriza yang paling berperan dalam multi inang adalah fungi yang mempunyai hubungan kekerabatan dengan ordo Thelephorales, Russulales, dan Sebacinales.Tomentella sp. dari ordo Thelephorales ditemukan paling banyak berasosiasi multi inang pada pohon dan semai. R. lepidicolor, Sebacina sp., dan fungi ektomikoriza famili Thelephoraceae masing-masing berasosiasi multi inang di tingkat semai. Keberadaan jenis-jenis fungi ektomikoriza yang mampu berasosiasi secara multi inang dengan dipterocarpaceae merupakan modal alami upaya rehabilitasi hutan tropis terdegradasi.


Multi-Host of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi on Dipterocarpaceae inTropical Rain Forests


Dipterocarpaceae is known as the dominant forest vegetation family in tropical forests that has mutual symbiosis with ectomycorrhizal fungi. It makes tropical forest resilience depend on the existence of ectomycorrhizal fungi. The role of ectomycorrhizal fungi to support the regeneration was found in multi-host form, indicated by sharing ectomycorrhizal fungal species between plants. Based on that phenomenon, the study aims to recognize ectomycorrhizal fungi that associate with dipterocarpaceae at tree and seedling levels, and the presence of multi-host ectomycorrhizal fungi on both growth stages. The research was conducted by identifying the ectomycorrhizal fungi via molecular approach by using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. To strengthen the sequence of DNA extracts, a specific primer pair of ITS 1F-ITS 4 was used. The identity of the ectomycorrhizal fungi was obtained by matching the samples’DNA sequence to the Genbank database. Based on the identification results, ectomycorrhizal fungi that associate with dipterocarpaceae on tree and seedling levels have genetic relationship with Dothideomycetes class and Sordariales, Sebacinales, Cantharellales, Russulales, Agaricales, Boletales, and Thelephorales orders. The research also found that multi-host of ectomycorrhizal fungi to dipterocarpaceae is formed both in different species and growth stages of host (tree and seedling). The most ectomycorrhizal fungi that play a role in multi-host are those with genetic relationship to the orders of Thelephorales, Russulales, and Sebacinales. Tomentella sp. of Thelephorales order was the most multi-host on both tree and seedling levels. R. lepidicolor, Sebacina sp., and ectomycorrhizal fungi of Thelephoraceae were found multi-host in seedling level. The existence of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated in multi-host with dipterocarpaceae is a natural asset for rehabilitation effort of degraded tropical forests.


dipterocarpaceae; DNA; ectomycorrhizal fungi; multi-host; tropical forests

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