Isolasi dan Identifikasi Molekuler Bakteri Proteolitik dari Saluran Pencernaan Ikan Nila (Oreochromis niloticus) yang Dibudidayakan di Kabupaten Banyumas

https://doi.org/10.22146/jfs.64072

Mohammad Nurhafid(1), Hamdan Syakuri(2*), Oedjijono Oedjijono(3), Emyliana Listiowati(4), Anandita Ekasanti(5), Dewi Nugrayani(6), Hendro Pramono(7)

(1) Program Magister Biologi, Fakultas Biologi, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia
(2) Program Studi Akuakultur, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia
(3) Laboratorium Mikrobiologi, Fakultas Biologi, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia
(4) 3Program Studi Akuakultur, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia
(5) Program Studi Akuakultur, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia
(6) Program Studi Akuakultur, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia
(7) Laboratorium Mikrobiologi, Fakultas Biologi, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Purwokerto, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Keberadaan bakteri proteolitik pada komoditas akuakultur penting untuk dipelajari, salah satunya terkait dengan praktek budidaya ikan skala kecil di daerah pedesaan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keberadaan dan melakukan identifikasi secara molekuler bakteri proteolitik yang diisolasi dari saluran pencernaan ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus). Sampel ikan nila diambil dari tiga unit kegiatan akuakultur yang menggunakan pakan berbeda di Kabupaten Banyumas yaitu dari Desa Pandak (dengan probiotik, pakan pellet), Desa Beji (tanpa probiotik, pakan tumbuhan) dan Desa Tambaksogra (dengan probiotik, kombinasi pakan pellet dan tumbuhan). Jumlah bakteri, proporsi bakteri proteolitik, dan indeks aktifitas proteolitik diamati dari usus bagian anterior, middle, dan posterior. Sampel isolat bakteri  proteolitik dikelompokkan berdasarkan hasil analisis restriksi 16S rDNA menggunakan software PhyElp. Bakteri dari setiap kelompok diidentifikasi berdasarkan sekuen gen 16S rDNA dengan menggunakan analisis BLAST dan analisis filogenetik. Jumlah bakteri di saluran pencernaan ikan nila dari tiga tempat relatif sama dan cenderung meningkat ke arah posterior. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ikan nila dari Desa Pandak memiliki proporsi bakteri proteolitik yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan sampel ikan dari Desa Beji dan Tambaksogra. Nilai aktivitas bakteri proteolitik saluran pencernaan ikan nila dari Desa Pandak relatif lebih tinggi dibandingkan dari dua desa lainnya. Bakteri proteolitik dari saluran pencernaan ikan nila dapat dikelompokkan menjadi 15 kelompok berdasarkan polimorfisme hasil digesti fragment gen 16S rDNA. Sampel dari 15 kelompok tersebut memiliki sekuen 16S rDNA yang mirip dengan Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4 isolat), Plesiomonas shigelloides, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas veronii, Klebsiella variicola, Enterobacter ludwigii, Enterobacter hormaechei (2 isolat), Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens dan Bacillus sp.

Keywords


Aktivitas proteolitik; bakteri; 16S rDNA; Oreochromis niloticus; saluran pencernaa;

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jfs.64072

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