Bambang Hanggono(1*)

(1) Balai Budidaya Air Payau Situbondo
(*) Corresponding Author


The objective of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of clove oil as an anesthetic in sea bass (Lates calcarifer) and the potential application of clove oil as anesthetic to facilitate the sea bass fry transportation. Acute toxicity test indicated the 24-hr LC50 value of clove oil in sea bass fry as 30 ppm with slope function of 1.079 (1.05 to 1.107). In efficacy test, fish were exposed to 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ppm of clove oil for 15 minutes. At 5 ppm, clove oil caused only sedation effect (partial loss of reaction to external stimuli) while at 20 ppm, fish entered anesthesia stage (failure to respond to external stimuli) within about 3 minutes. Fish recovered from a 15-min period of exposure in 20 ppm clove oil within less than 10 minutes following removal from the anesthetic solution. There was neither mortality nor abnormal behavior of fish during 15-min exposure of clove oil as well as during 7 days post recovery from anesthesia. The potential application of clove oil as an aid in the transport of sea bass fry in plastic bag was also investigated. At 5 ppm, clove oil could reduce activities of the fish without loss of equilibrium (sedation stage) during the 4 hour simulated transport at 50 fish per 1,000 ml sea water (15 ppt). At 20 ppm, clove oil caused loss of equilibrium in fish resulting in the anesthesia stage throughout the 4 hour period. However, there was no improvement on survival rate and fish behavior with the use of clove oil during and after this 4 hour transport. Simulated transport at 50 fish per 500 ml sea water (15 ppt) for 8 hour did show better significant survival rate with additional of 5 and 20 ppm clove oil. In both short and long term transport study, clove oil did show the benefit by reducing the fish activities judging from the reduction of oxygen consumption, ammonia and carbon dioxide levels. Addition of appropriate concentration of clove oil in transport water ensured that the fish would stay calm by reducing fish activity and therefore, prevented any drastic changes of water qualities.


anesthetic, clove oil, Lates calcarifer, sea bass, transportation

Full Text:

Full Article (PDF)


Anderson, G.W., R.S. McKinley, and M. Colavecchia. 1997. The use of clove oil as an anesthetic for rainbow trout and its effects on swimming perfor-mance. North Am. J. Fish. Manage. 17: 301-307.

APHA (American Public Health Associa-tion), American Water Works Association, Water Pollution Control Federation. 1998. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 20th Ed. Washington, D.C., USA. 1404 p.

Cho, G.K. and D.D. Heath. 2000. Comparison of tricaine methane-sulphonate (MS222) and clove oil anesthesia effects on the physiology of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum). Aquacult. Res. 31: 537- 546.

Durville, P. and A. Collet. 2001. Clove oil used as an anaesthetic with juvenile tropical marine fish. SPC Live Reef Fish Inform. Bull. 9: 1-4.

Erdmann, M.V. 1999. Clove oil: an ‘eco-friendly’ alternative to cyanide use in the live reef fish industry?. SPC Live Reef Fish Inform. Bull. 5:4-7.

Gilderhus, P.A. and L.L. Marking. 1987. Comparative efficacy of 16 anesthetic chemicals on rainbow trout. North Am. J. Fish. Manage. 7: 288-292.

Keene, J.L., D.L.G. Noakes, R.D. Moccia and G.C. Soto. 1998. The efficacy of clove oil as an anaesthetic for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquacult. Res. 29:89-101.

Litchfield, J.T. and F. Wilcoxon. 1949. A simplified method of evaluating dose-effect experiments. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 96: 99-113.

Marking, L.L. and F.P. Meyer. 1985. Are better anesthetic needed in fisheries? Fisheries 10 (6): 2-5.

Nagababu, E. and N. Lakshmaiah. 1992. Inhibitory effect of eugenol on non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in rat liver mitochondria. Biochem. Pharmacol. 43: 2393-2400.

Parrish, P.R. 1985. Acute toxicity tests. In: Fundamentals of aquatic toxicology: methods and applications. G.M. Rand and S.R. Petrocelli (Eds.). Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, New York. 31-56.

Robertson, L., P. Thomas, and C.R. Arnold. 1988. Plasma cortisol and secondary stress responses of cultured red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) to several transportation procedures. Aquaculture. 68: 115- 130.

Ross, L.G. and B. Ross. 1999. Anaesthetic and sedative techniques for aquatic animals. 2nd Ed. Blackwell Science Ltd., Great Britain. 159 p.

Soto, C.G. and Burhanuddin. 1995. Clove oil as a fish anaestethic for measuring length and weight of rabbit fish. Aquaculture. 136: 149-152.

Stehly, G.R. and W.H. Gingerich. 1999. Evaluation of AQUI-S (efficacy and minimum toxic concentration) as a fish anaesthetic/sedative for public aquaculture in the United States. Aquacult. Res. 30: 365-372.

Taylor, P.W. and S.D. Roberts. 1999. Clove oil: an alternative anaesthetic for aquaculture. North Am. J. Aquacult. 61: 150-155.

Tort, L., M. Puigcerver, S. Crespo, and F. Padros. 2002. Cortisol and haematological response in sea bream and trout subjected to the anaesthetics clove oil and 2-phenoxyethanol. Aquacult. Res. 33: 907-910.

Walsh, C.T. and B.C. Pease. 2002. The use of clove oil as an anaesthetic for the longfinned eel, Anguilla reinhardtii (Steindachner). Aquacult. Res. 33: 627-635.

Waterstrat, P.R. 1999. Induction and recovery from anesthesia in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus fingerling exposed to clove oil. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 30 (2): 250-255.

Wedemeyer, G. 1970. The role of stress in the disease resistance of fishes. Spec. Publ. Am. Fish. Soc. 5: 30-35.

Wedemeyer, G. 1996. Physiology of fish in intensive culture systems. Chapman and Hall, New York. 232 p.

Zar, J.H. 1984. Biostatistical analysis. Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey. 718 p.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jfs.157

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 600 | views : 757


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)

Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Indexed by:



View My Stats