Perceptions of a COVID-19 education public service announcement in Nunukan Regency, North Kalimantan: a qualitative study

Tiara Putri Leksono(1*), Avinindita Nura Lestari(2), Reyfal Khaidar(3), Yuga Putri Pramesti(4), Syarmila Sari(5), Lutfan Lazuardi(6)

(1) Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(2) Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia
(3) Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia
(4) Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(5) Department of Islamic Economic Law, Faculty of Syariah, Universitas Islam Negeri Ar-Raniry, Banda Aceh, Indonesia
(6) Department of Health Policy and Management, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Indigenous populations experience a risk of socio-economic marginalization in health emergency, including COVID-19. Public service announcements (PSA) are promotional materials that address problems in an attempt to increase public awareness. North Kalimantan is one of the frontier, outermost, and least developed regions in Indonesia with 11 regional languages spoken. One of the districts with inadequate human resources in the area is Nunukan regency. The present study sought to understand how one group of people in Nunukan Regency reactions, interests, and impressions with the COVID-19 information found in Bugis and Toraja version of audio PSAs released by Health Empowerment and Education Project (HEUProject). The study belongs to qualitative research and used purposive sampling with seven participants from two sub-district in Nunukan Regency. The data is analyzed qualitative-thematically which is further interpreted and presented  in the form of a description. Additionally, to see the variety of participants’ answers information transmission through PSAs, we analyzed the data using Tableau software 2020 version and presented the relative frequency of words with visual infographic. The study findings of the participants' immediate reactions were following the advice on the PSAs audio, for instance to keep the physical distance and washing their hands frequently. The most participants in this study have the willingness to hear, to understand, and also feel interested with the useful content in audio format that apparently improves their awareness of COVID-19 information. Overall, it is immediately apparent that the language, transmission of message, and information found in the HEUProject’s COVID-19 educational PSA were understood and engaged by participants in a way that it reflects on the pandemic situation. Our study supports the national usage of disease prevention with this type of media approach that could be used in public places in the future that may minimize the language divide.


COVID-19; Nunukan regency; PSA; qualitative study

Full Text:



  1. Peta Bahasa di Kalimantan Utara [Internet]. Provinsi Kalimantan Utara - Peta Bahasa. Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa, Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan; [cited2020Jun12]. Available from: Utara
  2. Rekapitulasi SDM Kesehatan yang didayagunakan di Daerah 3T (Tertinggal, Terdepan dan Terluar) di NUNUKAN, Provinsi KALIMANTAN UTARA. Badan PPSDM Kesehatan Informasi Kesehatan SDM Kesehatan. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2015.4.
  3. Nawir D, Zultan A. Pemberdayaan masyarakat wilayah 3T (Terdepan,terluar, Tertinggal) di Kecamatan Sebatik Barat Kabupaten Nunukan melalui revolusi mental dalam mewujudkan Indonesia Bersih dan Indonesia Bersatu. Jurnal Pengabdian Masyarakat Borneo. 2018;2(1):44.
  4. Haba, J. Ethnic groups, development, and current situation in Nunukan. J. Kependudukan Indones. 2006; I(1);53–66.
  5. Sadique MZ, Edmunds WJ, Smith RD, Meerding WJ, Zwart OD, Brug J, et al. Precautionary behavior in response to perceived threat of pandemic influenza. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2007;13(9):1307–13.
  6. Bardosh KL, Ryan SJ, Ebi K, Welburn S, Singer B. Addressing vulnerability, building resilience: community-based adaptation to vector-borne diseases in the context of global change. Infect Dis Poverty. 2017; 11(6);166.
  7. Lawan COVID-19 [Internet]. Lawan COVID-19 by HEUProject. [cited 2020Jun15]. Available from:
  8. Zentz L. Statehood, Scale, and Hierarchy: History, Language, and Identity in Indonesia. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters. 2017. 280 pp.
  9. Risk Communication and Community Engagement (RCCE) Action Plan Guidance COVID-19 Preparedness and Response [Internet]. World Health Organization. World Health Organization; [cited 2020Jun15]. Available from:
  10. Pandey P. Word Clouds in Tableau: Quick & Easy. [Internet]. Medium Towards Data Science; 2019 [cited 2020Jun15]. Available from:
  11. Balkhi F, Nasir A, Zehra A, Riaz R. Psychological and behavioral response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Cureus. 2020;12(5): e7923.
  12. Okeefe GJ, Reid K. The uses and effects of public service advertising. Public Relations Research Annual. 1990;2(1-4):67–91.
  13. Bridging the language divide in health [Internet]. World Health Organization. World Health Organization; 2019 [cited 2020Jun15]. Available from:
  14. Public Service Announcement, Professor Annette Taylor, University of Dayton, 2003 Sources include: Dennis L. Wilcox, Public Relations Writing and Media Techniques, Longman, 2001; Ronald D. Smith, Becoming a Public Relations Writer, HarperCollins, 1996; Kerry Tucker, Doris Derelian, Donna Rouner, Public Relations Writing, Prentice Hall, 1994.Purposive sampling [Internet]. Research. [cited 2020Jun15]. Available from:
  15. Fungsi masjid dan peranannya sebagai pusat ibadah dan pembinaan umat [Internet]. Griya PMI Asri RW.14. 2013 [cited 2020Jun15]. Available from:


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2773 | views : 2306


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Community Empowerment for Health

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.