Ocular involvment of coronavirus disease (COVID-19): A systematic review of conjunctival swab results

https://doi.org/10.22146/jcoemph.55543

Indra Tri Mahayana(1*), Natalia Christina Angsana(2), Muhammad Zhafran Ayyasy(3), Anastasya Sondang Hutajulu(4), Suhardjo Suhardjo(5)

(1) Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(2) Ophthalmology Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(3) Ophthalmology Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(4) Ophthalmology Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(5) Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a pandemic disease which is caused by the latest discovered coronavirus. Conjunctivitis is allegedly the first presentation of COVID-19 since it can spread by aerosol contact with the conjunctiva. The present study aimed to systematically review the employment of conjunctival swab with Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction in detecting SARS-Cov-2. The research is a systematic review of the published scientific literature on findings of conjunctival swab of COVID-19 from PUBMED database and other additional sources (i.e: Google Scholar). The search method was done using “COVID-19 OR coronavirus OR SARS-COV2, AND conjunctivitis, AND ocular manifestations, AND conjunctival swab” as keywords. Inclusion criteria were any papers that related to the entered keywords and have conjunctival swab as a reported outcome. Letters, reviews, and editorials describing other studies reporting COVID-19 and conjunctival swab were excluded. Only four research papers were found and included in the literature review. From the four current research papers, positive SARS-CoV-2 results were yielded from 0-5.26% of conjunctival swab specimens. In conclusion, although the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on the ocular surface remains unclear, the prevention of infection transmission through an ocular surface is mandatory by wearing goggles (or shield), mask (N-95 recommended) and gown.

Keywords


COVID-19, coronavirus, conjunctivitis, ocular manifestation

Full Text:

PDF


References

  1. World Health Organization. Coronavirus. Available from: https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus#tab=tab_1 [Accessed 02 April 2020]
  2. Li JPO, Lam DSC, Chen Y, dan Ting DSW. Novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): The importance of recognising possible early ocular manifestation and using protective eyewear. Br J Ophthalmol. 2020; 104(3).
  3. Worldometers. COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic. Available from: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/#countries [Accessed 02 April 2020]
  4. Xia J, Tong J, Liu M, Shen Y, Guo D. Evaluation of coronavirus in tears and conjunctival secretions of patients with SARS‐CoV‐2 infection. J Med Virol. 2020; 1–6.
  5. Wu P, Duan F, Luo C, Liu Q, Qu X, Liang L, Wu K. Characteristics of ocular findings of patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hubei Province, China. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2020; 138(5): 575-8.
  6. Lai THT, Tang EWH, Chau SKY, Fung KSC, Li KKW. Stepping up infection control measures in ophthalmology during the novel coronavirus outbreak: an experience from Hong Kong. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2020;258(5):1049-55.
  7. Reviglio VE, Osaba M, Reviglio V, Chiaradia P, Kuo IC, O’Brien TP. COVID-19 and ophthalmology: a new chapter in an old story. Med Hypothesis Discov Innov Ophthalmol. 2020; 9(2): 71-73.
  8. Zhou Y, Zeng Y, Tong Y, Chen C. Ophthalmologic evidence against the interpersonal transmission of 2019 novel coronavirus through conjunctiva. MedRxiv. 2020 Jan 1. Available from: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.11.20021956v1.full.pdf+html [[Accessed 02 April 2020].
  9. Deng, C., Yang, Y., Chen, H., Chen, W., Chen, Z., Ma, K. and Wang, J., 2020. Ocular detection of SARS-CoV-2 in 114 Cases of COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: an observational study. China. Available from: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3543587. [[Accessed 02 April 2020].
  10. Chan W. Tears and conjunctival scrapings for coronavirus in patients with SARS. Brit J Ophthalmol. 2004; 88(7): 968-9.
  11. Seah I, and Agrawal R. Can the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) affect the eyes?: a review of coronaviruses and ocular implications in humans and animals. Ocul Immunol Inflam. 2020: 28(3).



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jcoemph.55543

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2367 | views : 1710

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Community Empowerment for Health

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.