Progression of myopia among medical students: A one-year cohort study

https://doi.org/10.22146/jcoemph.42887

Agung Nugroho(1*), Mohammad Eko Prayogo(2), Widyandana Widyandana(3), Sagung Indrawati(4), Suhardjo Suhardjo(5)

(1) Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada/ Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(2) Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada/ Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(3) Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada/ Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(4) Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada/ Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(5) Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada/ Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Myopia is a common refractive disorder in literate countries related to education
and higher occupational groups. External factors affecting myopia and its progression remain
questionable. Myopia onset and progression occur during childhood and teenager. This study
aimed to determine the progression of myopia and its associated factors in the medical student
of Faculty of Medicine UGM, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, through a one-year cohort study. An initial
observational and cross-sectional survey conducted as baseline data. Correlation calculated
using Chi-square and the Spearman correlation coefficient analysis. A longitudinal cohort
study conducted 12 months later to the initial survey. Myopia determined with an autorefractor
without cycloplegia. BMI, intraocular pressure, and corneal curvature evaluated as factors
related to progression. Five hundred five students (98%; 505 of 515; 317 from the school of
medicine (SoM), 188 from the school of nursing and nutrition (SoNN)) age 15-20 years were
examined. Prevalence of myopia among SoM students was 69.4% (n=220 of 317) and 41.4%
(n=78 of 188) in SoNN. Myopia (SER ≥-0.5 D) found in 298 students, 81 boys (27.2%) and 217
girls (72.8%). Chi-square test revealed that myopia more common in Chinese than Javanese
and other (p=0.006) but a similar proportion in gender (p = 0.785) and age (p=0.369). The
average change of myopic progression was -0.401 D and -0.094 D per year in SoM and SoNN,
respectively (p = 0.000). The average change of myopia of boys and girls was -0.138 D and
-0.117 D, respectively (p = 0.871). There was no statistically significant correlation between
subjective refraction change and factors related to progression. The progression of myopia in
Yogyakarta relatively similar to Western countries. Progression in the school of medicine was
higher than the school of nursing and nutrition, but similar between boys and girls. No related
factor correlated with the progression of myopia expects further studies.


Keywords


medical students; myopia; myopia progression; refractive errors

Full Text:

PDF


References

  1. Wu PC, Huang HM, Yu HJ, Fang PC, Chen CT. Epidemiology of myopia. Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology. 2016;5:386–93.
  2. IAPB. VISION 2020: The Right to Sight - IAPB. England; 2020.
  3. Cooper J, Tkatchenko A V. A review of current concepts of the etiology and treatment of myopia. Eye Contact Lens. 2018;44(4):231–47.
  4. Holden BA, Fricke TR, Wilson DA, Jong M, Naidoo KS, Sankaridurg P, et al. Global prevalence of myopia and high myopia and temporal trends from 2000 through 2050. Ophthalmology. 2016;123(5):1036–42.
  5. Bowrey HE, Zeng G, Tse DY, Leotta AJ, Wu Y, To CH, et al. The effect of spectacle lenses containing peripheral defocus on refractive error and horizontal eye shape in the guinea pig. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58(5):2705–14.
  6. Sun JT, An M, Yan XB, Li GH, Wang DB. Prevalence and related factors for myopia in school-aged children in qingdao. J Ophthalmol. 2018; 9781987.
  7. Saxena R, Vashist P, Tandon R, Pandey RM, Bhardawaj A, Gupta V, et al. Incidence and progression of myopia and associated factors in urban school children in Delhi: The North India Myopia Study (NIM Study). PLoS One. 2017;12(12).
  8. Kathrotia RG, Dave AG, Dabhoiwala ST, Patel ND, Rao P V., Oommen ER. Prevalence and progression of refractive errors among medical students. Vol. 56, Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 2012. p. 284–7.
  9. Li T, Zhou X, Chen X, Qi H, Gao Q. Refractive error in chinese preschool children. Eye Contact Lens Sci Clin Pract. 2019;45(3):182–7.

  10. Chen M, Wu A, Zhang L, Wang W, Chen X, Yu X, et al. The increasing prevalence of myopia and high myopia among high school students in Fenghua city, eastern China: A 15-year population-based survey. BMC Ophthalmol. 2018;18(1).
  11. Rasmiyati WP, Suhardjo. Progresifitas miopia pada siswa sekolah menengah pertama di pedesaan dan perkotaan di yogyakarta. 2015. Tesis Kedokteran Klinis. Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan, Universitas Gadjah Mada.
  12. Lee AJ, Saw SM, Gazzard G, Cheng A, Tan DTH. Intraocular pressure associations with refractive error and axial length in children. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004 Jan;88(1):5–7.
  13. Prayogo M, Indrawati S, Suhardjo. Progression of myopia in the junior high school-age children: The Jogjakarta Eye Study. 2013. Tesis Kedokteran Klinis. Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan, Universitas Gadjah Mada.
  14. Wei S, Sun Y, Li S, Hu J, Yang X, Lin C, et al. Refractive errors in university students in central China: The anyang university students eye study. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2018;59(11):4691–700.
  15. Kshatri J, Panda M, Tripathy R. Prevalence, progression and associations of corrected refractive errors: a cross-sectional study among students of a Medical College of Odisha, India. Int J Community Med Public Heal. 2016;2916–20.
  16. Guo YH, Lin HY, Lin LLK, Cheng CY. Self-reported myopia in Taiwan: 2005 Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. Eye. 2012;26(5):684–9.
  17. Pärssinen O, Kauppinen M, Viljanen A. The progression of myopia from its onset at age 8-12 to adulthood and the influence of heredity and external factors on myopic progression. A 23-year follow-up study. Acta Ophthalmol. 2014;92(8):730–9.
  18. Huang HM, Chang DST, Wu PC. The association between near work activities and myopia in children - A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2015;10.
  19. Cheng CY, Hsu WM, Liu JH, Tsai SY, Chou P. Refractive errors in an elderly chinese population in Taiwan: The shihpai eye study. Investig Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003;44(11):4630–8.
  20. Lee DC, Lee SY, Kim YC. An epidemiological study of the risk factors associated with myopia in young adult men in Korea. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1).



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jcoemph.42887

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1457 | views : 1640

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Community Empowerment for Health

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.