A Critical Review of Wastewater Resource Recovery Implementation in Indonesia

https://doi.org/10.22146/jcef.52755

Ni Nyoman Nepi Marleni(1*), Gema Sakti Raspati(2)

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) SINTEF Community, SINTEF, Trondheim, Norway
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Wastewater has been recognized as a resource due to its large quantities, and it contains many valuable resources that can be converted into valuable material. Reusing or recovering resources from wastewater can reduce the environmental footprint of wastewater treatment, minimize the contamination and ensure the availability of valuable resources for the human being. The ultimate aim of wastewater resource recovery (WRR) is to create a sustainable and resilient community which is very relevant in Indonesia as this country experiences many natural or human-made disaster. To have an effective implementation, therefore, it is crucial to identify the barriers or supporting factors in its implementation of Wastewater Resource Recovery, which can be different for many regions. Through extensive literature studies, this study intends to review the possibility of WRR implementation in Indonesia.  This study discusses Indonesia policy/regulation about wastewater management across all-region in Indonesia, identify barriers in WRR, compares global trends of wastewater management to Indonesia practice and list wastewater resources that potentially can be recovered in Indonesia. From the review, barriers of WRR implementation in Indonesia is most probably due to the policy and regulation of wastewater management which many of them did not support the option of WRR, instead of suggesting only safe discharge option. However, some regulations have mentioned the utilization of wastewater by-product, but it is limited only to treated water utilization. Other obstacles are social acceptance and distance between recovered material supply and demand. Social acceptance includes the human perception regarding the health risk associated with wastewater by-product. Religion also could be a potential barrier that needs to be handled in the implementation of WRR. This study could give new insight into the current state of wastewater resource recovery initiative in Indonesia; thus the strategy to overcome the barriers could be designed.

Keywords


Wastewater Resource Recovery; Wastewater Management; Decentralised and Centralised Wastewater System; Wastewater Reuse, Policy and Regulation.

Full Text:

PDF


References

ADB, 2017. Urban wastewater management in Indonesia: Key principles and issues in Drafting local regulations.

Adewumi, J.R., Ilemobade, A.A. and Van Zyl, J.E., 2010. Treated wastewater reuse in South Africa: Overview, potential and challenges. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 55(2), pp.221–231.

AECOM International Development and Sandec, 2010. A Rapid Assessment of Septage Management in Asia.

Afandi, Y.V. and Sunoko, H.R., 2013. Pengelolaan Air Limbah Domestik Komunal Berbasis Masyarakat di Kota Probolinggo. 26(1), pp.97–102.

Agudelo-Vera, C.M., Mels, A.R., Keesman, K.J. and Rijnaarts, H.H.M., 2011. Resource management as a key factor for sustainable urban planning. Journal of Environmental Management, 92(10), pp.2295–2303.

Amann, A., Zoboli, O., Krampe, J., Rechberger, H., Zessner, M. and Egle, L., 2018. Environmental impacts of phosphorus recovery from municipal wastewater. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 130(December 2017), pp.127–139.

Bappenas, 2014. Draft RPJMN 2015–2019 and Target Universal Access AMPL. Jakarta.

Batstone, D.J., Hülsen, T., Mehta, C.M. and Keller, J., 2015. Platforms for energy and nutrient recovery from domestic wastewater: A review. Chemosphere, 140, pp.2–11.

Bons, K.C.A. (Deltares), Soekmono, A., Azhari, N., Restiawan, A., Tunggal, L., Yazid, A., Dini Uljati, I., Tata Samiadji, B., Tangkas, P., Suryana, Aart van, N., Muijtjens, R., de Groot, D., HaskoningDHV), S. (Royal, de Bel, M. and Brinkman, J. (Deltares), 2016. Asian Development Bank Indonesia - Country Water assessment Indonesia Country Water assessment.

BPS, 2013. Proyeksi Penduduk Indonesia Indonesia Population Projection.

Braungart, M., McDonough, W. and Bollinger, A., 2007. Cradle-to-cradle design: creating healthy emissions – a strategy for eco-effective product and system design. Journal of Cleaner Production, 15(13–14), pp.1337–1348.

Cieślik, B. and Konieczka, P., 2017. A review of phosphorus recovery methods at various steps of wastewater treatment and sewage sludge management. The concept of “no solid waste generation” and analytical methods. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142, pp.1728–1740.

Cordell, D., Rosemarin, A., Schröder, J.J. and Smit, A.L., 2011. Towards global phosphorus security: A systems framework for phosphorus recovery and reuse options. Chemosphere, 84(6), pp.747–758.

Dolnicar, S., Hurlimann, A. and Grün, B., 2011. What affects public acceptance of recycled and desalinated water? Water Research, 45(2), pp.933–943.

Eales, K., Isabel, B., Reini, S. and Evi, F., 2013. Review of Community-Managed Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems in Indonesia. Technical Paper, (June), pp.1–32.

Garcia, X. and Pargament, D., 2015. Reusing wastewater to cope with water scarcity: Economic, social and environmental considerations for decision-making. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 101, pp.154–166.

Gerbens-Leenes, P.W., Nonhebel, S. and Krol, M.S., 2010. Food consumption patterns and economic growth. Increasing affluence and the use of natural resources. Appetite, 55(3), pp.597–608.

Governor Regulation No. 2/2013 about Domestic Wastewater Management.

Governor Regulation of DKI Jakarta No. 122/2005 about Domestic Wastewater Management.

Gu, Y., Li, Y., Li, X., Luo, P., Wang, H., Wang, X., Wu, J. and Li, F., 2017. Energy Self-sufficient Wastewater Treatment Plants: Feasibilities and Challenges. In: Energy Procedia. pp.3741–3751.

Guest, J.S., Skerlos, S.J., Barnard, J.L., Beck, M.B., Daigger, G.T., Hilger, H., Jackson, S.J., Karvazy, K., Kelly, L., Macpherson, L., Mihelcic, J.R., Pramanik, A., Raskin, L., Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M., Yeh, D. and Love, N.G., 2009. A new planning and design paradigm to achieve sustainable resource recovery from wastewater. Environmental Science and Technology, 43(16), pp.6126–6130.

Haider, H., Alsaleem, S.S., Ghumman, A.R. and Sadiq, R., 2018. Development of Consumer Perception Index for assessing greywater reuse potential in arid environments. 44(4).

Van Der Hoek, J.P., De Fooij, H. and Struker, A., 2016. Wastewater as a resource: Strategies to recover resources from Amsterdam’s wastewater. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 113, pp.53–64.

Irge Olga Aujouannet Director, 2017. SDG implementation in G20 countries Status Spring 2017.

Jung, Y.T., Narayanan, N.C. and Cheng, Y.L., 2018. Cost comparison of centralized and decentralized wastewater management systems using optimization model. Journal of Environmental Management, 213, pp.90–97.

Kataki, S., West, H., Clarke, M. and Baruah, D.C., 2016. Phosphorus recovery as struvite: Recent concerns for use of seed, alternative Mg source, nitrogen conservation and fertilizer potential. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 107, pp.142–156.

Kerstens, S.M., Leusbrock, I. and Zeeman, G., 2015a. Feasibility analysis of wastewater and solid waste systems for application in Indonesia. Science of the Total Environment, 530–531, pp.53–65.

Kerstens, S.M., Leusbrock, I. and Zeeman, G., 2015b. Feasibility analysis of wastewater and solid waste systems for application in Indonesia. Science of The Total Environment, 530–531, pp.53–65.

Kerstens, S.M., Priyanka, A., van Dijk, K.C., De Ruijter, F.J., Leusbrock, I. and Zeeman, G., 2016a. Potential demand for recoverable resources from Indonesian wastewater and solid waste. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 110, pp.16–29.

Kerstens, S.M., De Ridder, R., Hof, A., Alberts, J., Mulhall, D. and Dale, D., 2011. Towards eco-effective sustainable sanitation for the city of Almere. Water Practice and Technology, 6(2).

Kerstens, S.M., Spiller, M., Leusbrock, I. and Zeeman, G., 2016b. A new approach to nationwide sanitation planning for developing countries: Case study of Indonesia. Science of the Total Environment, [online] 550, pp.676–689. Available at: <http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.104>.

Libralato, G., Volpi Ghirardini, A. and Avezzù, F., 2012. To centralise or to decentralise: An overview of the most recent trends in wastewater treatment management. Journal of Environmental Management, 94(1), pp.61–68.

Local Regulation No. 13/2006 about Wastewater Mangement in the City of Samarinda.

Malisie, A.F., Prihandrijanti, M. and Otterpohl, R., 2007. The potential of nutrient reuse from a source-separated domestic wastewater system in Indonesia - Case study: Ecological sanitation pilot plant in Surabaya. Water Science and Technology, 56(5), pp.141–148.

Massoud, M.A., Tarhini, A. and Nasr, J.A., 2009. Decentralized approaches to wastewater treatment and management: Applicability in developing countries. Journal of Environmental Management, 90(1), pp.652–659.

McDonough, 2000. Cradle to cradle: Remaking the way we make things: - Google Cendekia.

Mehta, C.M., Khunjar, W.O., Nguyen, V., Tait, S. and Batstone, D.J., 2015. Technologies to recover nutrients from waste streams: A critical review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 45(4), pp.385–427.

Ministrial Regulation No. 18/2007 about Development of Water Supply System.

Ministrial Regulation No.04/2017 about Domestic Wastewater Management.

Mitchell, C., Retamal, M., Fane, S., Willetts, J. and Davis, C., 2008. Decentralised water systems-creating conducive institutional arrangements. Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney. Accessed November, 10, p.2011.

Mitchell, C. and Ross, K., 2016. Findings and Recommendations. A synthesis for key stakeholders in community scale sanitation in Indonesia. pp.1–13.

Murray, A. and Ray, I., 2010. Commentary: Back-end users: The unrecognized stakeholders in demand-driven sanitation. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 30(1), pp.94–102.

PPSP, 2019. No Title. Portal Sanitasi Indonesia.

Puyol, D., Batstone, D.J., Hülsen, T., Astals, S., Peces, M. and Krömer, J.O., 2017. Resource recovery from wastewater by biological technologies: Opportunities, challenges, and prospects. Frontiers in Microbiology, .

Rahman, M.M., Salleh, M.A.M., Rashid, U., Ahsan, A., Hossain, M.M. and Ra, C.S., 2014. Production of slow release crystal fertilizer from wastewaters through struvite crystallization - A review. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 7(1), pp.139–155.

Report, A.C. and Recovery, R., 2016. IWA Resource Recovery Cluster State of the Art Compendium Report on Resource Recovery from Water Preface. p.49.

Smith, H.M., Brouwer, S., Jeffrey, P. and Frijns, J., 2018. Public responses to water reuse – Understanding the evidence. Journal of Environmental Management, 207, pp.43–50.

Song, X., Luo, W., Hai, F.I., Price, W.E., Guo, W., Ngo, H.H. and Nghiem, L.D., 2018. Resource recovery from wastewater by anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Opportunities and challenges. Bioresource Technology, 270(September), pp.669–677.

Tansel, B., Lunn, G. and Monje, O., 2018. Struvite formation and decomposition characteristics for ammonia and phosphorus recovery: A review of magnesium-ammonia-phosphate interactions. Chemosphere, 194, pp.504–514.

The World Bank; Australian Aid, 2013. East Asia Pacific Region Urban Sanitation Review : Indonesia Country Study.

Thornton, P.K., 2010. Livestock production: Recent trends, future prospects. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 365(1554), pp.2853–2867.

Wahanudin, I. and Ph, M.M.S., 2014. Indonesia National Policy on Sanitation Development. (March).

Wahyu Wijaya, I.M., 2018. Domestic Wastewater in Indonesia: Challenge in the Future Related To Nitrogen Content. International Journal of GEOMATE, 15(47), pp.32–41.

Wilderer, P.A. and Schreff, D., 2000. Decentralized and centralized wastewater management: a challenge for technology developers. Water Science and Technology, 41(1), pp.1–8.

Yan, T., Ye, Y., Ma, H., Zhang, Y., Guo, W., Du, B., Wei, Q., Wei, D. and Ngo, H.H., 2018. A critical review on membrane hybrid system for nutrient recovery from wastewater. Chemical Engineering Journal, 348(December 2017), pp.143–156.

Yudo, S. and Said, N.I., 2017. Kebijakan dan Strategi Pengelolaan Air Limbah Domestik di Indonesia. 10(2), pp.58–75.

De Zeeuw, H., Van Veenhuizen, R. and Dubbeling, M., 2011. The role of urban agriculture in building resilient cities in developing countries. Journal of Agricultural Science, 149(S1), pp.153–163.

Zhou, K., Barjenbruch, M., Kabbe, C., Inial, G. and Remy, C., 2017. Phosphorus recovery from municipal and fertilizer wastewater: China’s potential and perspective. Journal of Environmental Sciences (China), 52, pp.151–159.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jcef.52755

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 420 | views : 288

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of the Civil Engineering Forum


The content of this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
ISSN 5249-5925 (online) | ISSN 2581-1037 (print)
Jl. Grafika No.2 Kampus UGM, Yogyakarta 55281
Email : jcef.ft@ugm.ac.id
Web Analytics JCEF Stats