Source Rock Quality and 1D Maturity Model in Pendalian Sub-basin, Central Sumatra Basin

Putri Dwi Afifah(1*), Hendra Amijaya(2), Sarju Winardi(3), Widi Atmoko(4)

(1) Balai Besar Pengujian Minyak dan Gas Bumi LEMIGAS, Jakarta Selatan
(2) Geological Engineering Departement, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Geological Engineering Departement, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(4) Sigma Cipta Utama, Tangerang Selatan
(*) Corresponding Author


Pematang Formation is well known as the main source rock in the Central Sumatra Basin (Mazied et al., 2008). The formation which acts as source rock has been studied thoroughly in the central and eastern parts of the basin, but research regarding source rock in the western part of the basin, which is the study area, is very limited. This paper aims to define the quality of source rock from a geochemical view through the determination of organic content quantity based on the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) data, determining the type of kerogen, and thermal maturity of the source rock according to the values of Tmax and Vitrinite Reflectance (%Ro). Burial history and thermal maturity models (1D basin modeling) were also constructed to understand the timing of hydrocarbon generation. The results show that Pematang Formation among Sihapas and Telisa Formation has good organic content with TOC ranging from 0.2 to 42.48 wt%, and the maturity parameters indicate that the Pematang Formation has reached the mature stage. Both formations are dominated by Type II kerogen. 1D modeling of the SHT-1 Well indicates that the Pematang Formation is currently in the oil maturity window starting from early oil to main oil at 20.61 Ma, but the model of the SMB-1 Well has not reached the oil maturity window. Tectonic activity is estimated to have a significant effect on this difference when the uplift activity of Bukit Barisan in the Middle Miocene increased the maturity in the northwest, but the inversion that occurred in the Late Miocene resulted in uplift and erosion of young sediments, thus lowering the temperature in some area.


1D Maturity Model; Source Rock.

Full Text:



Badan Informasi Geospasial (2019). Peta RBI: Peta Rupa Bumi Indonesia.https://tanahair.indonesia

Eubank, R. T., & Makki, C. A. (1981). Structural geology of the Central Sumatra back-arc basin. Proceedings Indonesian Petroleum Association. Jakarta. p. 153–196. Heidrick, T. L., & Aulia, K. (1993). A structural and tectonic model of the Coastal Plains Block, Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia. Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Convention Indonesia Petroleum Association. Volume 1. Jakarta. p. 285-318.

Mazied, M., Amin, S., & Irawan, C. (2008). Source investigation of oils discovered in the West Kampar Block, Central Sumatra Basin. Proceedings of the 32 Annual Convention Indonesian Petroleum Association, Volume 1, p.119–131.

McCarthy, K., Rojas, K., Niemann, M., Palmowski, D., Peters, P., & Stankiewicz, A. (2011). Basic Petroleum Geochemistry for Source Rock Evaluation (No. 2; Oil Field Review, pp. 32–43). Schlumberger.

Mukhopadhyay, P. K., Wade, J. A., & Kruge, M. A. (1995). Organic facies and maturation of Jurassic/Cretaceous rocks, and possible oil-source rock correlation based on pyrolysis of asphaltenes, Scotian Basin, Canada. Organic Geochemistry, 22(01), p. 85–104.

Novianto, A., & Irawan, E. W. (2013). Pemetaan Daerah Reservoir Formasi Pematang Menggunakan Seismic Atribut Lapangan Fengfu Cekungan Sumatra Tengah. The 6 Malaysia-Indonesia Geological Heritage Conference. p.11–20.

Pertamina and BPPKA. (1996). Petroleum System of Indonesia Basin: Central Sumatra Basin. Peters, K. E., & Cassa, M. R. (1994). Applied Source Rock Geochemistry. In: Magoon, L.B., Dow, W.G. (editor), The Petroleum System - From Source to Trap AAPG Memoir 60, p. 93–120.

Sweeney, J. J., & Burnham, A. K. (1990). Evaluation of a Simple Model of Vitrinite Reflectance Based on Chemical Kinetics. The American Association of Petroleum Geologist Bulletin, 74 No.10, 1559–1570.

Waples, D. W. (1985). Geochemistry in Petroleum Exploration. Springer Netherlands. Boston, 235 p.

Williams, H. H., & Eubank, R. T. (1995). Hydrocarbon habitat in the rift graben of the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia. In: Lambiase, J.J. (editor), Hydrocarbon Habitat in Rift Basin. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 80(1), 331–371.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 568 | views : 733


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Putri Dwi Afifah, Hendra Amijaya, Sarju Winardi, Widi Atmoko

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Journal of Applied Geology Indexed by:


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.