Migration Practices in Europe: Economic and Cultural Factors


Zhibek Syzdykova(1*), Kalybek Koblandin(2), Nikolay Medvedev(3)

(1) Department of Central Asia and the Caucasus, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Kolmogorova str., 11/1 Mokhovaya Street, Moscow, 125009, Russian Federation
(2) Department of Regional Studies, L. N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University (ENU), Satpaev str. 2, Astana, 010000, Kazakhstan
(3) Political Science Issues, Zagoryevskaya str., 10, Moscow, 115598, Russian Federation
(*) Corresponding Author


This research aimed to identify the economic and cultural factors of migration in Europe within the context of contemporary economic and social realities. To achieve the research objective, a comprehensive multi-stage research project was developed and implemented, incorporating the advantages of statistical analysis, monitoring, rating and summary statistics. The research relied on harmonized and validated statistical data from 48 European countries, divided into four sub-regions, serving as the informational foundation for the study. Using summary statistics on migration factors in the context of economic and cultural factors made it possible to demonstrate the importance of considering cultural human rights in the country’s migration policy. An interpretation of migration practices in Europe by this means enables us to highlight the cultural context as a determining indicator, based on an analysis of objective indicators in the development of migration processes.  Furthermore, the study shows that the high quality of life and cultural attractiveness of the national policy stimulates the migration intentions of a person to seek out countries with more developed economies.The findings of this study hold relevance for policymakers and specialists in public administration, particularly those involved in the regulation and control of migration. Additionally, academic researchers can benefit from the empirical regularities established in this research and the identified prospective avenues for future investigations.


migrant; social mobility; human rights; multicultural society; quality of life

Full Text:



Alvarez, M., Belmonte, M., Kalantaryan, S., Kaslama, P., McMahon, S., Sermi, F., & Tarchi, D. (2021). Atlas of migration 2021. European Commission. https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/7c6210c1-6142-11ec-9c6c-01aa75ed71a1/language-en

Barbashin, М. (2020). The impact of migration on world culture in XXI c. SSRN. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3608793

Bazzi, S. (2017). Wealth heterogeneity and the income elasticity of migration. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 9(2), 219–255. https://doi.org/10.1257/app.20150548

Brell, C., Dustmann, C., & Preston, I. (2020). The labor market integration of refugee migrants in high-income countries. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 34(1), 94–121. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.34.1.94

Brunner, B., & Kuhn, A. (2018). Immigration, cultural distance and natives’ attitudes towards immigrants: Evidence from Swiss voting results. Kyklos, 71(1), 28–58. https://doi.org/10.1111/kykl.12161

Bygnes, S., & Erdal, M. B. (2017). Liquid migration, grounded lives: Considerations about future mobility and settlement among Polish and Spanish migrants in Norway. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 43(1), 102–118. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2016.1211004

Callens, M. S., & Meuleman, B. (2017). Do integration policies relate to economic and cultural threat perceptions? A comparative study in Europe. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 58(5), 367–391. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020715216665437

Castro-Palaganas, E., Spitzer, D. L., Kabamalan, M. M. M., Sanchez, M. C., Caricativo, R., Runnels, V., Labonté, R., Murphy, G. T., & Bourgeault, I. L. (2017). An examination of the causes, consequences, and policy responses to the migration of highly trained health personnel from the Philippines: The high cost of living/leaving—a mixed method study. Human Resources for Health, 15(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12960-017-0198-z

Cheliotis, L. K. (2017). Punitive inclusion: The political economy of irregular migration in the margins of Europe. European Journal of Criminology, 14(1), 78–99. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477370816640137

Crawley, H., & Skleparis, D. (2018). Refugees, migrants, neither, both: Categorical fetishism and the politics of bounding in Europe’s “migration crisis”. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 44(1), 48–64. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2017.1348224

Crescenzi, R., & Holman, N. (2017). Why do they return? Beyond the economic drivers of graduate return migration. The Annals of Regional Science, 59(3), 603–627. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00168-016-0762-9

Culture 2030 Goal campaign (2021). Culture in the localization of the 2030 Agenda: An analysis of voluntary local reviews. In 4th UCLG Culture Summit. Barcelona, Paris, Abidjan, Montreal, The Hague, Brussels: United Nations. https://cultureactioneurope.org/files/2022/01/af_culture2030goal_2021.pdf

Davis, N., Lizunkov, V. G., Ergunova, O., & Malushko, E. (2017). Phenomenon of migration and its manifestations in the modern world. The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences, 26, 550–556.

Daviеs, N. (2020). Europe: A history. London: The Folio Society Ltd.

Dustmann, C., Fasani, F., Frattini, T., Minale, L., & Schönberg, U. (2017). On the economics and politics of refugee migration. Economic Policy, 32(91), 497–550. https://doi.org/10.1093/epolic/eix008

Estevens, J. (2018). Migration crisis in the EU: Developing a framework for analysis of national security and defence strategies. Comparative Migration Studies, 6(1), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40878-018-0093-3

Gorodnichenko, Y., & Roland, G. (2017). Culture, institutions, and the wealth of nations. Review of Economics and Statistics, 99(3), 402–416. https://doi.org/10.1162/REST_a_00599

International Organisation of Migration (2020). World migration report 2020, 498. https://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/wmr_2020.pdf

International Organization for Migration and UN Migration (2022). World migration report. https://worldmigrationreport.iom.int/wmr-2022-interactive/

iVisa (2021). Online passport and visa service iVisa.com. https://www.ivisa.com/

Lanati, M., & Venturini, A. (2021). Cultural change and the migration choice. Review of World Economics, 57, 799–852. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10290-021-00418-1

McGarrigle, J., & Ascensão, E. (2018). Emplaced mobilities: Lisbon as a translocality in the migration journeys of Punjabi Sikhs to Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 44(5), 809–828. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2017.1306436

Mikhaylovich, V., & Vasylyevna, Z. (2016). Cultural assimilation and diasporization of the society in modern conditions. Philosophy of Law, 2(75), 33–37.

OECD (2019). Financial literacy needs of migrants and their families in the commonwealth of independent states. www.oecd.org/daf/fin/financial-education/financial-education.htm.

OECD (2020). Managing international migration under COVID-19. https://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/managing-international-migration-under-covid-19-6e914d57/

Penninx, R. (2005). Integration of migrants: Economic, social, cultural and political dimensions. The New Demographic Regime: Population Challenges and Policy Responses, 5, 137–152.

Quest, S. (2021). Atlas of migration 2021. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Roberts, J. (1997). A history of Europe. New York: Allen Lane.

Safonov, V. (2022). Comparison of LPO-AOS indices and biochemical composition of animal blood in biogeochemical provinces with different levels of selenium. Biological Trace Element Research, 200(5), 2055–2061. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-02825-9

Samburova, M., Safonov, V., & Avdushko, S. (2022). Ecological and biological features of the primrose distribution in Transbaikalia as the model territory of Eastern Siberia. The Botanical Review, 88(1), 50–62. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12229-021-09264-0

Setiadi, S. (2010). Migration, landscape dynamics, and fishermen livelihood: A case study at East Kalimantan. Indonesian Journal of Geography, 52(3), 350-359. https://doi.org/10.22146/ijg.54700

Song, W. Y., Zang, P., Ding, Z. X., Fang, X. Y., Zhu, L. G., Zhu, Y., Bao, C. J., Chen, F., Wu M., & Peng, Z. H. (2020). Massive migration promotes the early spread of COVID-19 in China: A study based on a scale-free network. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 9(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-00722-2

Susiloningtyas, D., Boer, M., Adrianto, L., & Julianto, F. (2014). The influence of fishing assets and migration time to catch squid fisheries on seasons variability. The Indonesian Journal of Geography, 4(1), 22-29. https://doi.org/10.22146/ijg.4987

Syzdykova, Z., Medvedev, N., Suleymanova, S., Nazarova, E., & Volokh, V. (2020). Governance of cross-border migration in Asia. Space and Culture, India, 7(4), 264–273. https://doi.org/10.20896/saci.v7i4.568

Tabellini, M. (2020). Gifts of the immigrants, woes of the natives: Lessons from the age of mass migration. The Review of Economic Studies, 87(1), 454–486. https://doi.org/10.1093/restud/rdz027

The International Monetary Fund (2021). Official webpage. https://www.imf.org/

Torkunov, A., Ryazantsev, S., & Levashov, V. (2021). COVID-19: Challenges, consequences, counteraction. Moscow: Aspect Press Publishing House.

Ventsova, I., & Safonov, V. (2021). Biochemical screening of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection in imported cows during adaptation. Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 9(8), 1203–1210.

World Bank (2022). Population, total. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL?most_recent_value_desc=false

Wu, C., & Wilkes, R. (2017). International students’ post-graduation migration plans and the search for home. Geoforum, 80, 123–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2017.01.015

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijg.82169

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 587 | views : 521


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Zhibek Syzdykova, Kalybek Koblandin, Nikolay Medvedev

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Accredited Journal, Based on Decree of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia Number 225/E/KPT/2022, Vol 54 No 1 the Year 2022 - Vol 58 No 2 the Year 2026 (accreditation certificate download)

ISSN 2354-9114 (online), ISSN 0024-9521 (print)