Predictive numerical modeling of groundwater drawdown impacts in Jakarta

Iwan Nursyriwan(1*), Muhammad Bisri(2), Lily Montarcih(3), Ery Suhartanto(4)

(1) Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Brawijaya University, Indonesia
(2) Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Brawijaya University, Indonesia
(3) Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Brawijaya University, Indonesia
(4) Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Brawijaya University, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


An excessive groundwater usage is happening in Jakarta, Indonesia, due to the population growth and industrial development so that it experiences a significant groundwater drawdown which could enhance the risk of seawater intrusion and land subsidence. Existing conditions in 2018 show that seawater intrusion occurred at the Western and Central coastal area and land subsidence happen in the Northern and Central part. This research, a numerical simulation, is conducted by modeling such causality during the critical period, the next 20 years. The result shows that for every groundwater drawdown of 10 m/year, it will cause intrusion 0.7 km/year in the Western and Central and 1.1 km/year in the Eastern area after 2028. The 10 m/year groundwater drawdown also results in land subsidence of 5.7 cm/year in the Northern and 2.5 cm/year in Central Jakarta. This result is useful as an input for groundwater management policies and to prevent the environmental impacts occurred at other large coastal cities.




Groundwater drawdown; Seawater intrusion; Land subsidence; Jakarta

Full Text:



Abidin, H., Andreas, H., Gamal, M., Djaja, R., & Darmawan, D. (2007). Land Subsidence Characteristics of Jakarta between 1997 and 2005, as estimated using GPS Surveys. GPS Solutions (12), 23-32.

Abidin, H., Andreas, H., Fukuda, Y., Pohan, Y., & Deghuci, T. (2011). Land Subsidence of Jakarta (Indonesia) and its relation with urban development. Springer.

Abidin, H., Gumilar, I., Andreas, H., & Rohman, A. (2014). Mapping and Analysis of Land Subsidence Impacts in Jakarta Area. Seminar on Research Finding.

Allen, D., & Liteanu, E. (2008). Long-term dynamics of the saltwater-freshwater interface on the Gulf Islands, British Columbia, Canada. Proceedings of the First International Joint Saltwater Intrusion Conference, SWIM-SWICA. Cagliari.

Bandono. (1983). Investigation of Land Subsidence Due to Groundwater pumping in Jakarta Area, Indonesia. Bangkok, Thailand: Msc. Asian Institute of Technology.

Bear, J. (1999). Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers: concepts, methods, and practices. Boston: Mass Kluwer Academic.

Braadbaart, O., & Braadbaart, F. (1977). Policing the urban pumping race: Industrial groundwater overexploitation in Indonesia. World Develop. 25 (2), 199-210.

Delinom, R. (2008). Groundwater Management Issues in the Greater Jakarta Area, Indonesia. Proceedings of International Workshop on Integrated Watershed management for Sustainable Water Use in Humid Tropical Region (pp. 40-54). JSPS-DGHE Joint Research project.

Delinom, R., Assegaf, A., Abidin, H., Taniguchi, M., Suherman, D., Lubis, R., & Yulianto, E. (2009). The contribution of Human Activities to Suburface Environment Degradation in Greater jakarta Area, indonesia. Science of the Total Environment 407, 3129-3141.

DGTL & Dinas Pertambangan DKI Jakarta. (1996). Land Subsidence Daerah Tongkol, Jakarta Utara, Laporan Akhir. Jakarta. (in Indonesian)

Dinas Pertambangan DKI Jakarta berkerjasama dengan LPM-ITB. (1999). Studi Pengaruh Pemompaan Air Bawah Tanah Terhadap Land Subsidence dan Intrusi Air Laut Wilayah Provinsi DKI Jakarta, Laporan Akhir. Disbang DKI Jakarta. (in Indonesian).

Dirjen SDA dan PT Ganesha Piramida. (2014). Land Subsidence dalam rangka kegiatan National Capital Integrated Coastal Development (NCICD). (in Indonesian).

Dinas Sumberdaya Air (2018). Annual Report (Not Published). (in Indonesian).

Djaeni, A., Hobler, M., Schmidt, G., Soekardi, P., & Sofner, B. (1986). Hydrological investigations in the Greater Jakarta Area of Indonesia. Saltwater Intrusion Meeting, (pp. 165-176). Delft, The Netherlands.

Djijono. (2002). Intrusi Air Laut Pada Air Tanah Dangkal di Wilayah DKI Jakarta. Bogor: Institut Pertanian Bogor. (in Indonesian).

Hehanusa, P. (1979). Penyusupan air laut ke dalam cekungan artesis Jakarta. Prosiding Pertemuan Ilmiah Tahunan IAGI VII . Bandung. (in Indonesian).

Hosono, T., Delinom, R., Onodera, S., Umezawa, Y., Nanako, T., & Taniguchi, M. (2009). Cause of groundwater contamination in Jakarta alluvium volcanic fan deduced by sulfate and strontium isotope ratios. IAHS Publication 329, 201-206.

Hosono, T., Nakano, T., Shimizu, Y., Onodera, S., & Taniguchi, M. (2011). Hydrogeological constraint on nitrate and arsenic contamination in Asian metropolitan groundwater. Hydrological Processes 25, 2742-2754.

Kagabu, M., Shimada, J., Delinom, R., Tsujimura, M., & Taniguchi, M. (2011). Groundwater flow system under a rapidly urbanizing coastal city as determined by hydrogeochemistry . Journal of Asian Eart Sciences, 226-239.

Kagabu, M., Shimada, J., Delinom, R., Tsujimura, M., & Taniguchi, M. (2012). Groundwater Age Rejuvenation caused by excessive urban pumping in Jakarta Area, Indonesia. Hydrological Processes 27.

Kelly, D. (2005). Seawater intrusion topic paper (final). Island County: WRIA Watershed Planning Process 1-30.

Lubis, R., Yamano, M., Delinom, R., Martosuparno, S., Sakura, Y., Goto, S., Miyakoshi, A., & Taniguchi, M. (2013). Assessment of urban groundwater heat contaminant in Jakarta, Indonesia. Environmental Earth Sciences 70, 2033-2038.

Martin, J.N. (2014). Central Coast Groundwater: Seawater Intrusion and Other Issues. California Water Foundation.

Marylin, N., & Hutasoit, L.M. (2018). Studi Penurunan Tanah di Rawa Buaya, Jakarta Barat. PAAI ke-3. (in Indonesian).

Mediterranean Groundwater Working Group of the Mediterranean Joint Process WFD/EUWI Process. (2007). Mediterranean Groundwater Report,

Onodera, S., Saito, M., Sawano, M., Hosono, T., Taniguchi, M., Shimada, J., Umezawa, Y., Lubis, R.F., Buapeng, S., & Delinom, R. (2009). Effects of intensive urbanization on the intrusion of shallower groundwater into deep groundwater: examples from Bangkok and jakarta. The Science of Total Environment 407, 9-17.

Panno, S., Hackley, K., Hwang, H., Greenberg, S., Krapac, I., Landsberger, S., & O'Kelly, D. (2006). Characterization and identification of Na-Cl sources in groundwater . Groundwater 44 (2), 176-187.

Prasojo, O. (2018). Jakarta Coastal Flood From the Perspective of Sea-Level Rise Record and Land Subsidence Interaction: A Review. PAAI ke-3.

Prayogi, T., & Gunawan, H. (2018). Kondisi Airtanah Wilayah Utara CAT Jakarta. PAAI ke-3. (in Indonesian).

Post, V.E.A., Eichholz,M. , Brentführer,R. (2018): Groundwater management in coastal zones. Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR). Hannover, Germany, 107 pp.

Ramdhan, A., & Hutasoit, L. (2007). Contribution of groundwater abstraction to land subsidence in Jakarta. Proceedings of International Symposium and Workshop on Current Problem in Groundwater Management and Related Water Resources Issues.

Sarah, D., Hutasoit, L., Delinom, R., Sadisun, I., & Wirabuana, T. (2018). A physical study of the effect of groundwater salinity in the compressibility of the Semarang-Deman Aquitard, Java Island. Geosciences 8.

Setiawan, T., Yermia, E., Purnomo, B., & Tirtomihardjo, H. (2017). Intrusi Air Laut pada Sistem Akuifer Tertekan Cekungan Airtanah Jakarta Berdasarkan Analisis Hidrokimia dan Hidroisotop. Riset Geologi Tambang vol. 27 no. 1, 1-14. (in Indonesian)

Soenarto, B., & Widjaya, J. (1985). Saltwater intrusion in Jakarta Groundwater Basin. Manila: Regional Workshop on Salt Water Intrusion in Large Coastal Cities, UNESCO.

Stuyfzand, P. (2008). Base exchange indices as indicators of salinization of freshening (coastal) aquifers. Proceedins of 20th Saltwater Intrusion Meeting, (pp. 262-265). Floride.

Taniguchi, M., Burnett, W., & Ness, G. (2008). Integrated research on subsurface environments in Asian urban areas. Science of the Total Environment 404, 377-392.

Taufiq, A. (2010). Land subsidence study for Bandung and Surrounding area (case study area: Dayehkolot, Rancaekekm and Cimahi). M.Sc. Thesis. Bandung, Indonesia: Bandung Institute of Technology.

Taufiq, A., Hosono, T., Ide, K., Kagabu, M., Iskandar, I., Effendi, A., & Hutasoit, L. (2018a). Impact of Excessive Groundwater Pumping on Rejuvenation process in the Bandung Basin (Indonesia) as determined by Hydrogeochemistry and Modeling. Hydrogeology Journal 26, 1263-1279.

Taufiq, A., Hosono, T., Iskandar, I., Effendi, A., & Hutasoit, L. (2018b). Estimating Groundwater Mixing Rations Using Hydrogeochemistry Parameters and Nitrate Concentration due to Excessive Groundwater Pumping in the Bandung Basin, Indonesia. Geologica Croatia Journal 71 (3), 173-184.

Taufiq, A., Effendi, A., Iskandar, I., Hosono, T., & Hutasoit, L. (2019). Controlling factors and driving mechanisms of nitrate contamination in grounwater system of Bandung Basin, Indonesia, deduced by combined use of stable isotope ratios, CFC age dating, and socioeconomic parameters. Water Research Journal 148, 292-305.

Wirakusumah , A., & Danaryanto, H. (2004). Groundwater Management in Indonesia case study: Groundwater conservation in Jakarta, Bandung, and Semarang. 41st Coordinating Committee for Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP) 41, (pp. 23-32).


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2909 | views : 2326


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Iwan Nursyriwan

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Accredited Journal, Based on Decree of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia Number 225/E/KPT/2022, Vol 54 No 1 the Year 2022 - Vol 58 No 2 the Year 2026 (accreditation certificate download)

ISSN 2354-9114 (online), ISSN 0024-9521 (print)