Youth Migration in Indonesia: Decision to Move and to Choose of Destination Areas

Meirina Ayumi Malamassam(1*)

(1) Research Center for Population - Indonesian Institute of Sciences(P2 Kependudukan -LIPI)
(*) Corresponding Author


Using intercensal population survey data, this paper examines migration behavior of youth in Indonesia aged 15 to 24 years old. Logistic regressions are employed to understand factors influencing youth’s decision to migrate as well as their choice of destination areas. The study findings suggest that migration preferences are determined by both the individual characteristics as well as the development level in both areas of origin and destination. It is also shown that education plays an important role in youth migration in Indonesia, not only in improving individual’s capacity to migrate, but also in prompting migration to big cities. In addition, youth migrants tend to move to areas with similar characteristics or similar cultural background to their areas of origin. For most of young people, migration is considered as an attempt for gaining upward social mobility, thus the prevalence of youth migration to less developed areas is low.


Youth migration;Indonesia;Decision-making;Destination choice;Gender;Education

Full Text:



Argent, N.M. & Walmsley, D.J. (2008). Rural youth migration trends in Australia: an overview of recent trends and two inland case studies. Geographical Research. 46(2), 139-152.

Bell, M. & Muhidin, S. (2009). Cross-national comparisons of internal migration (UNDP Human Development Research Paper Volume 30). New York: Human Development Report Office (HDRO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

Biro Pusat Statistik (BPS) (1990). Penduduk Indonesia: Hasil sensus penduduk 1990. Jakarta: BPS.

Biro Pusat Statistik (BPS) (2000). Penduduk Indonesia: Hasil sensus penduduk 2000. Jakarta: BPS.

Biro Pusat Statistik (BPS) (2005). Survei Penduduk Antar Sensus 2005 (SUPAS 2005) [Data set]. Jakarta: BPS.

Biro Pusat Statistik (BPS) (2011). Migrasi Internal Penduduk Indonesia. Jakarta: BPS.

Corcoran, J., Faggian, A., & McCann, P. (2010). Human capital in remote and rural Australia: The role of graduate migration. Growth and Change, 41, 192-220.

Crivello, G. (2011). Becoming somebody: Youth transitions through education and migration in Peru. Journal of Youth Studies. 14(4), 395-411.

Elder, G.H.Jr., King, V., & Conger, R.D. (1996). Attachment to place and migration prospects: A developmental perspectives. Journal of Research and Adolescence. 6(4), 397-425.

Easthope, H., & Gabriel, M. (2008). Turbulent lives: Exploring the cultural meaning of regional youth migration. Geographical Research, 46(2), 172-182.

Fafchamps, M., & Shilpi, F. (2013). Determinants of the choice of migration destination. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics. 75(3), 388-409.

Faggian, A., McCann, P., & Sheppard, S. (2007). Human capital, higher education and graduate migration: an analysis of Scottish and Welsh students. Urban Studies. 44(13), 2511-2528.

Franklin, R.S. (2003). Migration of the young, single and college educated: 1995 to 2000 (Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-12). Washington DC: Government Printing Office.

Gabriel, M. (2006). Youth migration and social advancement: How young people manage emerging differences between themselves and their hometown. Journal of Youth Studies. 9(1), 33-46.

Everett S. Lee (1966). A Theory of Migration. Demography.3(1), 47-57.

Magnan, M.O., Gauthier, M., & Cote, S. (2007). Youth migration in Quebec: Survey results obtained from Anglophones 20 to 34 years of age. Montreal: Institut national de la recherché scientifique Urbanisation.

McKenzie, F. (2009). Regional youth migration and the influence of tertiary institutions. Melbourne: Department of Planning and Community Development. The Victorian Government.

Morrison, P.S., & Clark, W.A.V. (2011). Internal migration and employment: macro flows and micro motives. Environment and Planning. 43(8), 1948-1964.

Muhidin, S. (2003). Migrated household in Indonesia: An exploration of the Intercensal survey data (Asian MetaCentre Research Paper Series No. 8). Singapore: National University of Singapore.

Pardede, E. & Muhidin, S. (2006). Life course stages and migration behaviour of Indonesian population: Evidence from the IFLS data. Paper presented at the 2006 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of American. Los Angeles, CA.

Pollard, K., O’Hare, W.P., & Berg, R. (1990). Selective migration of rural high school seniors in the 1980s. Washington DC: Population Reference Bureau.

Rappaport, J. (2008). Consumption amenities and city population density. Regional Science and Urban Economics.38(6), 533-552.

Salzmann, S. (2008). Migration for education: Studying abroad and return to the home country, the example Kyrgz university graduates (Unpublished Master Thesis). Department of Geography University of Zurich, Zurich.

Statistics Indonesia (Badan Pusat Statistik – BPS), National Population and Family Planning Board (BKKBN), Ministry of

Health (Kemenkes), and ICF International. (2013). Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2012. Jakarta: BPS, BKKBN, Kemenkes and ICF International.

Sweeney Research. (2009). Youth migration study report: Part 2. Melbourne: Department of Planning and Community Development. The Victorian Government.

Tirtosudarmo, R. (2009). Mobility and human development in Indonesia (UNDP Human Development Research Paper Volume 19). New York: Human Development Report Office (HDRO).United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

Van Lottum, J., & Marks, D. (2012). The determinants of internal migration in a developing country: Quantitative evidence for Indonesia, 1930-2000. Applied Economics. 44(34), 4485-4494.

Winters, J.V. (2011). Human capital and population growth in nonmetropolitan U.S. counties: the importance of college student migration. Economic Development Quarterly. 25(4), 353-365.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 5083 | views : 5804


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2016 Indonesian Journal of Geography

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Accredited Journal, Based on Decree of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia Number 225/E/KPT/2022, Vol 54 No 1 the Year 2022 - Vol 58 No 2 the Year 2026 (accreditation certificate download)

ISSN 2354-9114 (online), ISSN 0024-9521 (print)