### Inverse Kinematic Algorithm with Newton-Raphson Method iteration to Control Robot Position and Orientation based on R programming language

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijccs.82781

Budiman Nasution(1), Lulut Alfaris(2), Ruben Cornelius Siagian(3*)

(1) Departemen of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Medan, Medan
(2) Department of Marine Technology, Politeknik Kelautan dan Perikanan, Pangandaran
(3) Departemen of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Medan, Medan
(*) Corresponding Author

#### Abstract

The homogeneous transform program is a function used to calculate the homogeneous transformation matrix at a specific position and orientation of a three-link manipulator. The homogeneous transformation matrix is a 4x4 matrix used to represent the position and orientation of an object in three-dimensional space. In the program, the rotation matrix R is calculated using the Euler formula and stored in a 4x4 matrix along with the position coordinates. The Jacobian matrix function calculates the Jacobian matrix at a specific position and orientation of a three-link manipulator using the homogeneous transformation matrix. The Euler formula used in the program is based on the rotation matrices for rotations around the x, y, and z-axes. The output of these functions can be useful for future research in developing advanced manipulators with improved accuracy and flexibility. Research gaps in exploring the limitations of these functions in real-world applications, particularly in scenarios involving complex manipulator configurations and environmental factors.

#### Keywords

Homogeneous transformation program; homogeneous transformation matrix; Three-link manipulator; the Jacobian matrix; Euler's function formula

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijccs.82781

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