Big Five Trails: A Critical Review
This study seeks to provide a broad and thorough review of the literature on the big five traits (BFT) and its major developments through a long history of conceptual and applied studies in many areas that have been conducted on large samples of individuals, groups and countries. The BFT is the most widely accepted and most prominent model to describe the structure of personality traits, so this study sought to identify them in order to achieve a better understanding as well as for consideration by researchers in their future studies. This review focused on the eight key observations related to the BFT. These observations are as follows: meaning of the traits; the history of the BFT model; unity or hierarchy of traits; number of the traits; three perspectives on BFT; BFT questionnaires; BFT and performance; and the need for a sixth trait. The results of the study clearly confirmed that there are problems with universal models that tend to generalize a limited number of dimensions in order to interpret personality across borders and cultures. This generalization of the models is accompanied by the numerous observations and problems mentioned in the above eight points.
Aaker, J. L. 1997. Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Marketing Research XXXIV: 347-356.
Achour, M., and A. B. Boerhannoeddin. 2011. The role of religiosity as a coping strategy in coping with work-family conflict: The case of Malaysian women in academia. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity 1 (1): 80-85.
Achour, M., M. R. Mohd Nor, and Y. Z. M. Yusoff. 2015. Islamic personal religiosity as a moderator of job strain and employee’s well-being: The case of Malaysian academic and administrative staff. Journal of Religion and Health 54 (2).
Al-Goaib, S. 2003. Religiosity and social conformity of university students: An analytical study applied at King Saoud University. Arts Journal of King Saoud University 16 (1): 51–99.
Allen, B. P. 2006. Personality Theories: Development, Growth, and Diversity. Oxen: Routledge.
Aluja, A., A. Blanch, S. Gallart, and M-J. Dolcet. 2010. The temperament and character inventory revised (TCI-R): Descriptive and factor structure in different age levels. Behavioral Psychology 18 (2): 385-401.
Aluja, A., and A. Blanch. 2011. The five and seven factors personality models: Differences and similitude between the TCI-R, NEO-FFI-R and ZKPQ-50-CC. The Spanish Journal of Psychology 14 (2): 659-666.
Amir, F., F. Naz, S. Q. Hafeez, A. Ashfaq, and Y. H. Dogar. 2014. Measuring the effect of five factor model of personality on team performance with moderating role of employee engagement. Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science 2 (2): 221-255.
Armstrong, P. I., S. X. Day, J. P. McVay, and J. Rounds. 2008. Holland’s RIASEC model as an integrative framework for individual differences. Journal of Counseling Psychology 55 (1): 1–18.
Ashton, M. C., K. Lee, and L. R. Goldberg. 2004. A hierarchical analysis of 1,710 English personality descriptive adjectives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87: 707–721.
Ashton, M. C., and K. Lee, 2005. Honesty–humility, the Big Five, and the Five-Factor model. Journal of Personality 73: 1321–1353.
Ashton, M. C., and K. Lee. 2008. The prediction of Honesty–humility-related criteria by the HEXACO and five-factor models of personality. Journal of Research in Personality 42: 1216–1228.
Aziz, S., and C. J. Jackson. 2001. A comparison between three and five factor models of Pakistani personality data. Personality and Individual Differences 31: 1311-1319.
Bagby, R. M., P. T. Costa Jr., T. A. Widiger, A. G. Fyder, and M. Marshall. 2005. DSM-IV personality disorders and the Five-Factor model of personality: A multi-method examination of domain and Facet-Level predictions. European Journal of Personality 19: 307–324.
Baron, J. 2014. Moral judgment. In Zamir, Eyal and Teichman, Doron (Eds.): 61-92. The Oxford Handbook of Behavioral Economics and the Law. New York: Oxford University Press.
Briggs, S. R. 1989. The optimal level of measurement of personality constructs. In Buss, D. M., and N. Cantor (Eds.), Personality Psychology: Recent Trends and Emerging Directions: 246-260. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Burger, J. M. 2011. Personality. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing, Cengage Learning.
Carver, C. S., and M. F. Scheier. 2012. Perspectives on personality. In Boston Barrick, M. R., and M. K. Mount (Eds. 1991), The Big Five Personality Dimensions and Job Performance: A Meta-analysis (In Personnel Psychology: 44, 1–26).
Cattell, R. B., H. W. Eber, and M. M. Tatsuoka. 1970. Handbook for the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF). Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability.
Cervone, D., and L. A. Pervin. 2013. Personality: Theory and Research. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Chamorro-Premuzic, T., and A. Urnham.2010. The Psychology of Personnel Selection. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Charles, D. 2013. The Personality Puzzle. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Cheung, F. M., W. Z. Song, and J. X. Zhang. 1996. The Chinese MMPI-2: Research and applications in Hong Kong and the People’s Republic of China: 137-161. In Butcher, J.N. (Eds.), International Adaptations of the MMPI-2: A Handbook of Research and Applications. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Cheung, F. M., F. J. R. van de Vijver, and F. T. L. Leong. 2011. Toward a new approach to the study of personality in culture. American Psychologist 66 (7): 593–60.
Chomsky, N., and R. W. McChesney. 2003. Profit Over People: Neoliberalism and Global Order. Naw York: Publisher: Seven Stories Press.
Church, A. T., and M. S. Katigbak. 1989. Internal, external, and self-report structure of personality in a non-Western culture: An investigation of cross-language and cross-cultural generalizability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57: 857 -872.
Church, A. T., and P. Burke. 1994. Exploratory and confirmatory tests of the big five and Tellegen’s three- and four-dimensional models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 66; 93–114.
Church, A., and M. S. Katigbak, 2002. Studying personality traits across cultures: Philippine Examples. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 4(4). . https://doi.org/10.9707/ 2307-0919.1039, (retrieved Dec, 2017)
Cloninger C. R, T. R. Przybeck, and D. M. Svrakic 1991. The Three-Dimensional Personality Questionnaire: U.S. normative data, Psychological Reports 69: 1047 - 57.
Cloninger C. R, D. M, Svrakic and T. R. Przybeck, 1993. A psychobiological model of temperament and character, Archives of General Psychiatry 50: 975 - 90.
Cloninger, C. R. 1994. Temperament and personality. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 4: 266-273.
Cloninger, C. R. and D. M. Svrakic 1997. Integrative psychobiological approach to psychiatric assessment and treatment. Psychiatry 60: 120-141.
Cloninger, C. R., D. M, Svrakic, C. Bayón, and Przybeck T. R. 1999. Measurement of psychopathology as variants of personality (pp. 21-40). In C. R. Cloninger, C. R., D. M. Svrakic, C. Bayón, and T. R. Przybeck (Eds.). Personality and Psychopathology. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Cloninger, S. C. 2004. Theories of Personality: Understanding Persons. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Costa, P. T., and R. R. McCrae. 1988. Personality in adulthood: A six-year longitudinal study of self reports and spouse ratings on the NEO Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54: 853–863.
Costa, P. T., and R. R. McCrae, 1992. Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) Professional Manual. Odessa FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Costa Jr., P.T., and R. R. McCrae. 1995. Domains and facets: hierarchical personality assessment using the revised NEO personality inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment 64 (1): 21-50.
DeYoung, C. G. 2010. Personality neuroscience and the biology of traits. Social and Personality Psychology Compass 4: 1165–1180.
Donnellan, M. B.; F. L. Oswald, B. M. Baird, and R. E. Lucas. 2006. The mini-IPIP scales: Tiny-Yet-effective measures of the big five factors of personality. Psychological Assessment 18 (2): 192–203.
Durant, W., and A. Durant. 1968. The Lessons of History. New York: Simon and Schuster.
El-Menouar, Y. 2014. The five dimensions of Muslim religiosity. Results of an Empirical Study, Methods, Data, Analyses 8 (1): 53-78
Emmons, R. A. and R. F. Paloutzian. 2003. The psychology of religion. Annual Review of Psychology 54: 377–402.
Ewen, R. B. 2003. An Introduction to Theories of Personality. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Eysenck. H. J. 1992. Four ways five factors are not basic. Personality and Individual Differences, 13(6), 667-673.
Eysenck, H. J. 1998. Dimensions of Personality. New Jersey: Transaction Publishing.
Farrukh, M., C. W. Ying, and N. O. A. Ahmed. 2016. Organizational commitment: Does religiosity matter? Cogent Business and Management. Journal Cogent Business and Management 3 (1).
Feldman, R. S. 2013. Essentials of Understanding Psychology. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Gebauer, J. E., B. W. Leidorn, S. D. Gosling, P. J. Rentfrow, M. E. Lamb, and J. Potter. 2014. Cross-cultural variations in Big Five relationships with religiosity: A sociocultural motives perspective. Journal of Personality And Social Psychology 107 (6): 1064-1091.
Georgia, C-S. 2013. Rules and Hofstede’s UAI, a study on the Arabic Muslim and European Christian cultures. Journal of Global Politics and Current Diplomacy 1 (1): 79–90.
Giacalone, R. A., and C. L. Jurkiewicz. 2010. Toward a science of workplace spirituality. In Giacalone, R. A., and C. L. Jurkiewicz (Eds.), Handbook of Workplace Spirituality and Organizational Performance. New York: M.E. Sharp, Inc.
Goldberg, L. R. 1981. Language and individual differences: The search for universals in personality lexicons (pp 141-165). In L. Wheeler (Ed.), Review of Personality and Social Psychology 2.
Goldberg, L. R. 1990. An alternative ‘‘description of personality”: The big- five factor structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59: 1216–1229.
Goldberg, L. R. 1992. The development of markers for the Big-Five factor structure. Psychological Assessment 4: 26–42.
Goldberg, L. R. 2001. International personality item pool. In Matthews, G., I. J. Deary, abd M. Whiteman (2003). Personality Traits. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Goldberg, L. R. 1999. A broad-bandwidth, public domain, personality inventory measuring the lower-level facets of several Five-Factor models (pp 7–28). In Mervielde, I. I. Deary, F. De Fruyt, and F. Ostendorf (Eds.), Personality Psychology in Europe 7. Tilburg, The Netherlands: Tilburg University Press.
Gurven, M. R., C. von Rueden, M. Massenkoff, H. Kaplan, and M. L.Vie. 2013. How universal is the Big Five? Testing the Five-Factor model of personality variation among forager–farmers in the Bolivian Amazon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 104 (2): 354 –370.
Gutiérrez-Zotes, J. A., C. Bayón, C. Montserrat, J. Valero, A. Labad, C. R. Cloninger, and F. Fernández-Aranda. 2004. Temperament and character inventory revised (TCI-R): Standardization and normative data in a general population sample. Actas Espanolas de Psiquiatría 32: 8-15.
Harkness, A. R., and J. L. McNulty. 1994. The personality psychopathology five (PSY-5): Issue from the pages of a diagnostic manual instead of a dictionary. In Strack, S., and M. Lorr (Eds.), Differentiating Normal and Abnormal Personality. New York: Springer.
Harkness, A. R., J. L. McNulty, Y. S. Ben-Porath, and J. R. Graham. 2002. The Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Scales: Gaining an Overview for Case Conceptualization and Treatment Planning. Minneapolis. MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Heine, S. J, D. R. Lehman, K. Peng, and J. Greenholtz. 2002. What’s wrong with cross-cultural comparisons of subjective Likert scales? The reference-group effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 82: 903–918.
Hills, P., L. J. Francisb, M. Argylea, and C. J. Jacksonc. 2004. Primary personality trait correlates of religious practice and orientation. Personality and Individual Differences 36: 61–73.
Hofstede, G., and M. H.Bond. 1988. Confucius and economic growth: New trends in culture’s consequences. Organizational Dynamics 16 (4): 4–21.
Hofstede, G. 1980. Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. CA: Beverly Hills: Sage.
Hogan, J., and B. Holland. 2003. Using theory to evaluate personality and job performance relations: A Socioanalytic Perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology 88 (1): 100–112.
Hogan, R and Hogan, J. 1992. Hogan Personality Inventory Manual. Tulsa, available at: http://www.drbobhurley.com (retrieved Dec 14, 2018).
Hough, L.M. 2011. The ‘Big Five’ Personality variables—construct Confusion: description versus prediction. Human Performance 5 (1-2): 139-155.
House, R. J. P. J. Hanges, M. Javidan, P. W. Dorfman and V. Gupta. 2004. Published Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Jang, K. L., W .J. Livesley and P.A. Vernon. 1996. Heritability of the big five personality dimensions and their facets: A twin study. Journal of Personality 64 (3): 577–591.
John, O. P., E. M. Donahue and R. L. Kentle. 1991. The Big Five Inventory (Versions 4a and 54). Berkeley, CA: University of California, Berkeley, Institute of Personality and Social Research.
John, O. P., and S. Srivastava. 1999. The Big-Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives (pp. 102- 138). In Pervin, L.A., and O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of Personality: Theory and rResearch. New York: Guilford Press.
Johnson, J.A. 2014. Measuring thirty facets of the five factor model with a 120-item public domain inventory: Development of the IPIP-NEO-120. Journal of Research in Personality 51: 78–89.
Karim, N. S. A, N.H.A. Zamzuri, and Y. M. Nor. 2009. Exploring the relationship between internet ethics in university students and the big five model of personality. Computers and Education 53 (1): 86-93.
Krueger, R. F., and N. R. Eaton. 2010. Personality traits and the classification of mental disorders: Toward a more complete integration in DSM–5 and an empirical model of psychopathology. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment 1 (2): 97–118.
Lamiell, J. T. 2000. A periodic table of personality elements? The” big five” and trait” psychology” in critical perspective. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 20 (1): 1-24.
Larsen, R. J. and D. M. Buss. 2014. Personality Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
Leea, K., and M. Ashton. 2004. Psychometric properties of the HEXACO personality inventory. Multivariate Behavioral Research 39 (2): 329-358.
Lee, K., and M. C. Ashton. 2014. The dark triad, the big five, and the HEXACO model. Personality and Individual Differences: 67: 2–5.
Lodhi, P.H. S.V. Deo and V.M. Belhekar. 2002. The five-factor model of personality: Measurement and correlates in the Indian context. In McCrae , R.R. and J. Allik, (Eds), The Five-Factor Model of Personality Across Cultures (pp 227-248). New York: Springer Science-Business Media.
Maslow, A. H. 1978. Motivation and Personality. New York: Longman.
Maslow, A. H. 1999. Toward a Psychology of Being. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Mastor, K. A., P. Jin, and M. Cooper. 2000. Malay culture and personality: A big five perspective. American Behavioral Scientist 44 (1): 95– 111.
Matthews, G., and K. Oddy. 1993. Recovery of major personality dimensions from trait adjective data. Personality and Individual Differences 15: 419–431.
McAdams, D. P., and J. L. Pals. 2006. A new big five fundamental principles for an integrative science of personality. American Psychologist 61 (3) (April) 204 –217.
McBride, M. T., and G. Richardson. 2012. The economics of peace and conflict. In Garfinkel, M. R. and S. Skaperda(EDs). The Oxford Handbook of the Economics of Peace (pp. 110-126). Oxford, Oxford University Press.
McCleary, R. M. and R. J. Barro. 2003. Religion and Political Economy in An International Panel. https://scholar.harvard.edu (retrieved May 20, 2017).
McCleary, R. M. and R. J. Barro. 2006. Religion and economy. Journal of Economic Perspectives 20 (2) (Spring): 49 –72.
McCraea, R. R., and P. T. Costa, Jr. 1989. Rotation to maximize the construct validity of factors in the NEO Personality Inventory. Multivariate Behavioral Research 24: 107–124.
McCrae, R. R., and P. T. Costa. 1997. Personality trait structure as a human universal. American Psychologist 52 (5): 509–516.
McCrae, R. R., and P. T. Costa, Jr. 2004. A contemplated revision of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Personality and Individual Difference 36: 587–596.
McCrae, R. R. 2009. The five-factor model of personality traits: Consensus and controversy. In Corr, Philip J. and G. Matthews (Eds). The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology. Cambridge University Press, New York.
McCrea, R. R. 2002. NEO-PI-R data from 36 cultures: Further intercultural comparisons. In: McCrae , R.R. and Allik, J. (Eds.), The Five-Factor Model of Personality Across Cultures (pp 105-126). New York: Springer Science-Business Media.
McCrae, R. R., and P. T. Costa Jr. 1996. Toward a new generation of personality theories: theoretical contexts for the five-factor model. In Wiggins, J. S. (Ed.), The five-factor model of personality: Theoretical perspectives (pp. 51-87). New York: Guilford.
McNally, D. 2011. Monsters of the Market: Zombies, Vampires and Global Capitalism. Leiden: Brill.
Miserandino, M. 2012. Personality Psychology: Foundations and Findings. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Mohd Mahudin, N. D., N. Mohd Noor, N., M. A. Dzulkifli, and N. S. Janon. 2016. Religiosity among Muslims: A scale development and validation study. Makara Hubs-Asia 20 (2): 109–121.
Murphy, K. R., and J. L. Dzieweczynski, J. L. 2005. Why don’t measures of broad dimensions of personality perform better as predictors of job performance? Human Performance 18 (4): 343–357.
Najm A. N. 2015. Arab culture diensions in the international and Arab models. American Journal of Business, Economics and Management 3 (6): 423-431.
Nasution, M.E. (2009). Islamic spirit and moral in economics. Journal of International Development and Cooperation 15 (Nos. 1–2: 113–124.
Nelson, R. 2006. Economics as Religion: From Samuelson to Chicago and Beyond. Pennsylvania, The Pennsylvania State University.
Njus, D. M., and C. M. H. Bane. 2009. Religious identification as a moderator of evolved sexual Strategies of men and women. Journal of Sex Research 46 (6): 546–557.
Norman, W. T. 1963. Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: Replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology (66): 574-583.
Nyborg, K. 2000. Homo economicus and homo Politicus: interpretation and aggregation of environmental values. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization: 305–322.
O’Donohue, W. K.A. Fowler, and S.O. Lilienfild. 2007. Personality Disorders: Toward the DSM-V. California: Age Publications, Inc.
ONeal, M. J. and J. S. Jones. 2007. World Religions (1). Detroit: Thomson Gale.
Osborne, J. W. 2015. What is Rotating in Exploratory Factor Analysis? Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation 20 (2). Available online: http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=20&n= (retrieved Dec 12, 2017).
Osman-Gani, A. M., J. Hashim, and I. Yusof. 2013. Establishing linkages between religiosity and spirituality on employee performance. Employee Relations 35 (4): 360-376.
Othman, A. K. M. I. Hamzah and N. Hashim. 2014. Conceptualizing the Islamic personality model. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences 130: 114–119.
Panayiotou , G, C. M. Kokkinos, and G. Spanoudis. 2004. Searching for the big five in a Greek context: the NEO-FFI under the microscope. Personality and Individual Differences 36: 1841–1854.
Paunonen, S. V. and D. N. Jackson. 2000. What is beyond the big five? Plenty.! Journal of Personality 68 (5): 821–835.
Plaut, V. C., H. R. Markus, M. E. Lachman. 2002. Place matters: Consensual features and regional variation in American well-being and self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 83: 160–184. doi:10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.199.
Raad, B. 2009. Structural models of personality (pp. 127-147). In Corr, P. J. and G. Matthews (Eds), The Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Rammstedt, B., L. R. Goldberg, and I. Borg. 2010. The measurement equivalence of big-five factor markers for persons with different levels of education. Journal of Research in Personality 44: 53–61.
Randy, J. R. J. Larsen, and D. M. Buss. 2008. Personality Psychology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Raven, B. H. 1992. A power/interaction model of interpersonal influence: French and Raven thirty years later. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 7: 217–244.
Piedmont R. L. 1999. Does spirituality represent the sixth factor of personality? Spiritual transcendence and the Five – Factor model. Journal of Personality (67): 985–1013.
Rentfrow, P. J. 2010. Statewide differences in personality: Toward a psychological geography of the United States. American Psychologist 65 (6): 548–558.
Rican, P., and P. Janosova. 2010. Spirituality as a basic aspect of personality: A cross-cultural verification of Piedmont’s model. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 20: (1): 2-13.
Robbins, M. L. J. Francis, D. McIlroy, R. I. Clarke, and L. Pritchard. 2010. Three religious orientations and five personality factors: An exploratory study among adults in England. Mental Health, Religion and Culture 13 (No.7/8): 771-775.
Robertson, I. 2001. Undue diligence. People Management 7 (23): 42–43.
Robie, C., D. J. Brown, and P. R. Bly. 2005. The big five in the USA and Japan. Journal of Management Development 24 (8): 720 - 736.
Rolland, J-P. 2002. The cross cultural generalizability of the five factor of personality (pp 7-28). In McCrae , R. R., and J. Allik (Eds.), The Five-Factor Model of Personality Across Cultures. New York: Springer Science-Business Media.
Rothstein, M. G., and R. D. Goffin. 2006. The use of personality measures in personnel selection: What does current research support? Human Resource Management Review 16: 155–180.
Saroglou, V. 2002. Religion and the five factors of personality: A meta-analytic review. Personality and Individual Differences 32: 15-25.
Saucier, G., and L. R. Goldberg. 1996. The language of personality: Lexica/ perspectives an the five-factor model (pp 22-50). In Wigging, J. S.(Ed.), The Five-Factor Model of Personality Theoretical Perspective. New York: The Guilford Press.
Saucier, G., and L. R. Goldberg. 1998: What is beyond the Big Five? Journal of Personality 66: 495-524.
Schmitt, D., J. Allik, R. R. McCrae, V. Benet. 2007. The geographic distribution of Big Five personality traits: Patterns and profiles of human self-description across 56 nations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 38 (2): 173– 212.
Schmitt, N. 2004. Beyond the Big Five: increases in understanding and practical utility. Human Performance 17: 347–357.
Schwartz, S. H. 2006. A theory of cultural value orientations: Explication and applications. Comparative Sociology 5 (2/3): 137-82.
Simon, H. A. 1982. Models of Bounded Rationality (Vol. 2). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Simon, H. A.1997. Administrative Behavior. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Snyder, C. R. R. J. Shenkel, and C. R. Lowery. 1977. Acceptance of personality interpretations: The Barnum effect and beyond. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 45 (1) (Feb): 104-114.
Stendorf, F., and A. Angleitnir. 1994. A comparison of different instruments proposed to measure the Big Five. European Review of Applied Psychology 44 (1): 45-55.
Taylor C. 2007. A Secular Age. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Taylor, E. 2009. The Mystery of Personality: A History of Psychodynamic Theories. San Francisco: Springer.
Thera, N. 2014. The Heart of Buddhist Meditation. San Francisco: Weiser Book.
Toates, F. M. 2011. Biological Psychology. Harlow: Pearson Education.
Triandis, H.C., and E. M. Suh. 2002. Cultural influences on personality. Annual Review of Psychology 53: 133–60.
Tsaousis, I., and P. Kerpelis. 2004. The traits personality questionnaire 5 (TPQue5): The shortened version of a Big Five measure. European Journal of Psychological Assessment 20 (3): 180–191.
Tuominen, L. 2014. Neurobiological correlates of personality traits: A Study on harm avoidance and neuroticism. Thesis. University of Turku, https://www.doria.fi.
Van Gordon, W., E. Shonin, M. D. Griffiths, and N. N. Singh. 2015. Mindfulness and the Four Noble Truths (pp. 9-19) In Buddhist Foundations of Mindfulness. New York: Springer.
Wade, N.2009. The Faith Instinct: How Religion Evolved and Why it Endures. New York: The Penguin Books.
Weaver, G., and B. Agle. 2002. Religiosity and ethical behavior in organizations: A symbolic interactionist perspective. Academy of Management Review 27 (1): 77-97.
Widiger, T. A., and S. N. Mullins-Sweatt. 2005.Categorical and dimensional models of personality disorders (pp35-53). In Oldham, J. M., A. E. Skodol, and D. S. Bender(Eds.), Textbook of Personality Disorders. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.
Wiggins, J. S. 1968. Personality structure. Annual Review of Psychology 19: 293–350.
Woods, S. A. and N. R. Anderson. 2016. Toward a periodic table of personality: Mapping personality scales between the five-factor model and the circumplex model. Journal of Applied Psychology 101 (4) (Apr): 582-604.
Zhou, X., G. Saucier, D. Gao, and J. Liu. 2009. The factor structure of Chinese personality Terms. Journal of Personality 77 (2): 363-399.
Zuckerman, M. 1992. What is a basic factor and which factors are basic? Personality Individual Differences 13 (6): 675-681.
Zullig, K. J., R. M. Ward, and T. Horn. 2006. The association between perceived spirituality, religiosity and life satisfaction: The mediating role of self-rated health. Social Indicators Research 79 (2): 255–274.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2019 Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.