The Impact of Training and Development and Supervisor Support on Employees Retention in Academic Institutions: The Moderating Role of Work Environment

Palwasha Bibi(1*), Ashfaq Ahmad(2), Abdul Halim Abdul Majid(3)

(1) Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
(2) Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
(3) Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia
(*) Corresponding Author


This study investigated the impact of training and development and supervisors support on employees retention. Furthermore, the current study also investigates the moderating effect of the work environment on the relationship between training and development, supervisors support, and employees’ retention. A survey was undertaken to collect data from 250 faculty members working in public sector universities in Pakistan. PLS path modeling was employed to analyze the data. The results revealed that training and development and the support of the supervisors had a significant relationship with the retention of employees. Similarly, the results also revealed that the work environment moderated the relationship between training and development, supervisors support, and employees’ retention. Finally, the implications, limitations and recommendations for further research were discussed.


Training and Development, Supervisor Support, Work Environment, Employee Retention.

Full Text:



Aarakit, S. M., and F. K. Kimbugwe. 2015. Moderating effect of organizational environment on intrapreneurial orientation and firm performance. Global Advanced Research Journal of Management and Business Studies 4 (7): 285-290.
Abbasi, S. M., and K. W. Holman,. 2000. Turnover: The real bottom line. Public Personnel Management 29 (3): 333-342.
Abeysekera, R. 2007. The impact of human resource management practices on marketing executive turnover of leasing companies in Sri Lanka. Contemporary Management Research 3 (3): 233-252.
Ahmad, A., P. Bibi, and A. H. Majid. 2016. Co-worker support as moderator on the relationship between compensation and transactional leadership in organizational commitment. International Journal of Economic Perspectives 10 (4): 695-709.
Ahmad, A., P. Bibi, and A. H. Majid .2017. The impact of training and development and transformational leadership over organizational commitment among academic staff in public tertiary institutions: The buffering role of coworker support. International Journal of Economic Perspectives 11 (1): 417-432.
Akila, R. 2012. A Study on employee retention among executives at BGR Energy systems LTD, Chennai. International Journal of Marketing, Financial Services and Management Research 1 (9): 18-32.
American Management Association (AMA). 2001. Survey finds cash not the best retention tool. HR Focus 76 (6): 4.
Barclay, D, C. Higgins, and R. Thompson. 1995. ‘The partial least square (PLS) approach to causal modelling: personal computer adoption and use as an illustration. Technology Studies 2 (2): 285-309.
Baron, R. M., and D. A. Kenny. 1986. The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51 (6): 1173-1186.
Batt, R., J. S. Alexander, A. Colvin, and J. Keefe. 2002. Employee voice, human resource practices, and quit rates: Evidence from the telecommunications industry. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 55: 573-594.
Bigliardi, B., A. Petroni, and A. I. Dormio. 2005. Status, role and satisfaction among development engineers. European Journal of Innovation Management 8 (4): 453-470.
Billah, M. M. 2009. Human resource management practices and employee turnover intention to leave: A Study on commercial banks in Bangladesh. AMDIB Management Review 1: 23-42.
Blau, P. M. 1964. Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York, NY: Wiley.
Carney, K. 1998. How Businesses Can Reduce High Employee Turnover. Inc, 47.
Chang, E. 1999. Career commitment as a complex moderator of organizational commitment and turnover intention. Human Relations 52: 1257-1278.
Cho, S., M. M. Johanson, and P. Guchait. 2009. Employee intent to leave: A comparison of determinants of intent to leave versus intent to stay. International Journal of Hospitality Management 28 (3): 374-381.
Choi, Y., and D. R. Dickson. 2009. A case study into the benefits of management training programs: Impacts on hotel employee turnover and satisfaction level. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality and Tourism 9 (1): 103-116.
Clear, F., and D. Dickson. 2005. Teleworking practices in small and medium-sized firms: Management style and worker autonomy. New Technology, Work and Employment  20 (3): 218-233.
Coyle-Shapiro, J. A. M., and N. Conway. 2005. Perceived organizational support and employee diligence, commitment and innovation. Journal of Applied Psychology 90: 774-781.
Delery, J. E., and D. H. Doty. 1996. Modes in theorizing in strategic HRM: Tests of universalistic, contingencies, and configurational performance predictions. Academy of Management Journal 39: 802-835.
Denton, D. K. 1992. Recruitment, Retention, and Employee Relations: Field-tested Strategies for the’90s. Praeger Pub Text.
Dess, G. D. and J. D. Shaw. 2001. Voluntary turnover, social, capital, and organizational performance. Academy of Management Review 26 (3): 446-456.
Dockel, A., J. S. Basson, and M. Coetzee. 2006. The effect of retention factors on organizational commitment: An investigation of high technology employees. SA Journal of Human Resource Management 4 (2): 20-28.
Duarte, P., and M. Raposo. 2010. A PLS model to study brand preference: An application to the mobile phone market. In V. Esposito Vinzi, W. W. Chin, J. Henseler and H. Wang (Eds.), Handbook of Partial Least Squares (pp. 449-485): Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Dysvik, A., and B. Kuvaas. 2012. Perceived job autonomy and turn over intention: The moderating role of perceived supervisor support. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. DOI:10.1080/1359432X.2012.667215.
Edgar, F., and A. Geare. 2005. HRM practice and employee attitudes: Different measures- different results. Personnel Review 34 (5): 534-549.
Eisenberger, R., S. Armeli, B. Rexwinkel, P. D. Lynch, and L. Rhoades.2001. Reciprocation of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology 86 (1): 42-51.
Eisenberger, R., F. Stinglhamber, C. Vandenberghe, I. Sucharski, and L. Rhoades. 2002. Perceived supervisor support: Contributions to perceived organizational support and employee retention. Journal of Applied Psychology 87 (3): 565-573.
Forgacs, L. 2009. Recruitment and retention across continents. Journal of Training and Development 63 (6): 40-44.
Fornell, C., and D. F. Larcker. 1981. Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research 18: 39-50.
Haines, V. Y., P. Jalette, and K. Larose.2010. The influence of human resource management practices on employee voluntary turnover rates in the Canadian non-governmental sector. Industrial and Labor Relations Review 63 (2): 228-246.
Hair, J. F. J., R. E. Anderson, R. L. Tatham, and W. C. Black. 1998. Multivariate Data Analysis (5th ed.). Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
Hair, J. F., C. B. William, J. B. Barry, and E. A. Rolph. 2010, Multivariate Data Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hair, J. F., G. T. M. Hult, C. M. Ringle, and M. Sarstedt. 2013. A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage: Thousand Oaks.
Harris, J., and J. Brannick. 1999. Finding and Keeping Great Employees (Vol. 314). New York: Amacom.
Hatton, C., and E. Emerson. 1998. Brief report: Organizational predictors of actual staff turnover in a service for people with multiple disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities 5: 166-171.
Hom, P. W., and R. W. Griffeth. 1995. Employee turnover. South-Western Pub.
Irshad, M., and F. Afridi. 2010. Factors affecting retention: Evidence from literature. Abasyn Journal of Social Sciences 4 (2): 307-339.
Irshad, M. 2000. Factors affecting employee retention: Evidence from literature review. Abasyn Journal of Social Science 4 (1): 84-102.
Jaworski, B. J. 1988. Toward a theory of marketing control: Environmental context, control types, and consequences. The Journal of Marketing 52: 23-39.
Kim-Soon, N., N. Ahmad, and A. R. Ahmad. 2014. Moderating effects of work environment on motivation to learn and perceived training transfer: Empirical evidence from a bank. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 8 (6): 344-361.
Kyndt, E., F. Dochy, M. Michielsen, and B. Moeyaert. 2009. Employee retention: Organisational and personal perspectives. Vocations and Learning 2 (3): 195-215.
Lee, C.H., and N. T. Bruvold. 2003. Creating value for employees: Investment in employee development. International Journal of Human Resource Development 14: 981-1000.
Lee, J. 2004. Effects of leadership and leader-member exchange on commitment. Leadersh. Org. Dev. J. 26: 655-672.
Lee, Y., J. Nam, D. Park, and K. A. Lee. 2006. What factors influence customer oriented prosocial behavior of customer-contact employees? Journal of Services Marketing 20 (4): 251–264.
Lewin, K., R. Lippitt, and R. White. 1939. Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates. Journal of Social Psychology 10: 271– 301.
Liao, P. 2011. Linking work–family conflict to job attitudes: The mediating role of social exchange relationships. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 22 (14): 2965-2980.
London, M. 1993. Relationships between career motivation, empowerment, and support for career development. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 66 (1): 55-69.
Lynn, J. 1997. Hard to hold: Conquer the tight labor market by retaining valuable workers. Entrepreneur 34.
Mangi, R. A., H. J. Soomro, I. Ghumro, A. R. Abidi, and A. A. Jalbani. 2011. A study of job satisfaction among non Ph.D. faculty in universities. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research 1 (7): 83-90.
Martin C. 2003. Explaining labor turnover: Empirical evidence from UK establishments. Labor 17 (3): 391-412.
Mendonsa, R. 1998. Keeping who you want to keep: Retaining the best people. Supervision: 10-12.
Meyer, J., and N. Allen. 1991. A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review 1: 64-98.
Mossholder, K. W., R. P. Settoon, and S. C. Henagan. 2005. A relational perspective on turnover: Examining structural, attitudinal, and behavioral predictors. Academy of Management Journal 48: 607–618.
Ng’ethe, J. M., M. E. Iravo, and G. S. Namusonge. 2012. Determinants of academic staff retention in public universities in Kenya: Empirical review. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science 2 (13): 205-212.
Nguyen, P., J. Felfe, and I. Fooken. 2013. Antecedents of commitment to a parent company and to a local operation: Empirical evidence from Western employees working for multinational companies in Vietnam. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 24 (7): 1346-1375.
Ollukkaran, B. A., and R. Gunaseelan. 2012. A study on the impact of work environment on employee performance. Namex International Journal of Management Research 2 (2).
Osteraker, M. C. 1999. Measuring motivation in a learning organization, Journal of Work Place Learning.
Paré, G., and M. Tremblay. 2007. The influence of high-involvement human resources practices, procedural justice, organizational commitment, and citizenship behaviors on information technology professionals’ turnover intentions. Group and Organization Management 32 (3): 326-357.
Price, J. L., and C. W. Muller. 1986. Handbook of Organizational Measurement. Marshfield, MA: Pitman.
Raihan, J. M. H. 2012. Mediating effects of organizational commitment and perceived organizational support on HRM practices and turnover intention: A study of private universities in Bangladesh. PhD Thesis. Universiti Utara Malaysia.
Ramlall, S. 2003. Organizational application managing employee retention as a strategy for increasing organizational competitiveness: Applied H.R.M. Research 8 (2): 63-72.
Rowland, K. M., and G. R. Ferris. 1982. Personnel Management. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon
Saba, I. 2011. Measuring the job satisfaction level of the academic staff in Bahawalpur Colleges. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences 1 (1): 1-8.
Samuel, M. O., and C. Chipunza. 2009. Employee retention and turnover: using motivational variables as a panacea. African Journal of Business Management 3 (8): 410-415.
Saritas, O. 2007. The Effects of Training and Development Activities on Employee Turnover: Turkish Insulation Sector.
Schleh, C. 1977. A matter of management style. Management Review 66 (8): 8-14.
Schuler, R. S., and I. C. MacMillan. 1984. Gaining competitive advantage through human resource management practices. Human Resource Management 23 (3): 241-255.
Setton, R. P., N. Bennett, and R. C. Liden. 1996. Social exchange in organizations: Perceived organizational support, leader-member exchange, and employee reciprocity. Journal of Applied Psychology 81: 219-227.
Silbert, L.2005. The Effect of Tangible Rewards on Perceived Organizational Support.
Sohail, M. T., and H. Delin. 2013. Job satisfaction surrounded by academics staff: A case study of job satisfaction of academics staff of the GCUL, Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business 4 (11): 126-137.
Sutherland, M. M. 2004. Factors affecting the retention of knowledge workers. Ph.D. Dissertation. Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences, University of Johannesburg.
Tan, F. M. 2008. Organizational support as the mediator of career related HRM practices and affective commitment: Evidence from knowledge workers in Malaysia. Research and Practices in Human Resource Management 16 (2): 8-24.
Tett, R. P., and J. P. Meyer. 1993. Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and turnover: Path analyses based on meta analytic findings. Pers. Psych. 46: 259-93.
Thibaut, J. W., and H. H. Kelley. 1959. The social Psychology of Groups. New York: John Wiley& Sons.
Tolman, E. C. 1926. A behavioristic theory of ideas. Psychological Review 33 (5): 352-396.
Tsai, W-C., and W-T. Tai. 2003. Perceived importance as a mediator of the relationship between training assignment and training motivation. Personnel Review 32: 151-163.
Tuzun, I. K., and R. A. Kalemci. 2012. Organizational and supervisory support in relation to employee turnover intentions. Journal of Managerial Psychology 27 (5): 518–534.
Umamaheswari, S., and J. Krishnan. 2016. Work force retention: Role of work environment, organization commitment, supervisor support and training and development in ceramic sanitary ware industries in India. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management 9 (3): 612.
Walia, B., and K. Bajaj. 2012. Impact of human resource management (HRM) practices on employee retention. International Journal of Research in IT & Management  2 (2): 836-847.
Walumbwa, F. O., J. J. Lawler, B. J. Avolio, W. Peng, and S. Kan. 2005. Transformational leadership and work-related attitudes: The moderating effects of collective and self-efficacy across cultures. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies 11 (3): 2–16.
Winterton, J. 2004. A conceptual model of labor turnover and retention. Human Resource Development International 7 (3): 371-390.
Woo, B., and P. Chelladurai. 2012. Dynamics of perceived support and work attitudes: The case of fitness club employees. Human Resource Management Research 2 (1): 6-18.
Zeytinoglu, I. U., and M. Denton. 2005. Satisfied workers, retained workers: Effects of work and work environment on homecare workers’ job satisfaction, stress, physical health, and retention. CHSRF FCRSS: Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, Foundation Canadienne de la Recherché sur les Services de Sante.
Zhao, W., and X. Zhou, X. 2008. Intra-organizational career advancement and voluntary turnover in a multinational bank in Taiwan. Career Development International 13 (5): 402-424.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 252 | views : 158


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business indexed in: Indonesian Publication Index (IPI)  WorldCat  Harvard Library The University of Manchester University of Oxford Google Scholar    

Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business  (ISSN 1411-1128 (Print) and ISSN 2338-7238 (Online))

site stats View My Stats