Consumer Attitudes Toward Advertisement and Brand, Based on the Number of Endorsers and Product Involvement: An Experimental Study

Tanti Handriana, Wahyu Rahman Wisandiko,

(1) Faculty of Economic and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya-Indonesia
(2) WISANDIKO, Wahyu Rahman, is a staff at The State-Owned Electricity Company (PT PLN Indonesia), Cilacap. Contact details: PT Perusahaan Listrik Negarra-Cilacap, Jln. Katamso No. 52 Cilacap; phone: +62 282 531706; e-mail:


Utilizing endorsers in the advertising industry to promote products is currently on the rise, and employing celebrities as the endorsers is still the marketers’ favorite method. This study aims to analyze the influence of the number of endorsers and the product’s involvement on the consumers’ attitude towards the advertisement and the brand. The research’s approach used a 2x2 factorial experimental design. A total of 120 undergraduate students, who were further divided into 4 groups, were selected as the respondents of this study. The results show the differences in consumer attitudes towards advertisements and the brand, based on the number of endorsers and the product’s involvement. The study also reveals that if there is low involvement with the product, multiple celebrity endorsements will generate a better consumers’ attitude towards it than a single celebrity endorsement. Multiple celebrity endorsements will also generate a better attitude among the consumers towards the brand than a single celebrity endorsement will produce.


attitude towards advertisement; attitude towards brand; experimental design; multiple celebrity endorsers; product involvement

Full Text:



Assael, H. 2004. Consumer Behavior: A strategic approach. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Belch, G.E and M.A. Belch. 2003. Advertising and Promotion an Integrated Marketing Communication Perspectives. 6thed., New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Bhagyashree S. and S. Solanki. 2015. What Is More Effective? Single Celebrity Versus Multiple Celebrity: A Study Relative Effectiveness of Both Type of Print Advertisements on Consumer’ Perception. International Journal of Research – Granthaalayah 3 (9): 23-35.

Celsi R. L. and J. C. Olson. 1988. The Role of Involvement in Attention and Comprehension Processes. Journal of Consumer Research 15: 210-224.

Chaefer A. and B. Keillor. 1997. Effective Use of Endorsements in Advertising: The Relationship Between “Match-Up” And Involvement. The Journal of Marketing Management 7 (2): 23-33.

Chung, H.and X. Zhai. 2003. Humor Effect On Memory and Attitude: Moderating Role of Product Involvement. International Journal of Advertising 22 (1): 117-144.

Churchill  G. A. 2002. Fundamentals of Experimental Design For DNA Microarrays. Nature Genetics Supplement 32: 490-495.

Erfgen C., H. Sattler, and I. V. Villeda. 2016. Effects of Celebrity Endorsers for Multiple Brands on Attitudes and Purchase Intentions. Schmalenbach Bus Rev 17: 49–67.

Friedman, H., S. Termini, and R. Washington. 1976. The Effectiveness of Advertisements Utilizing Four Types of Endorsers. Journal of Advertising 5 (3): 22-24.

Goldsmith, R.E. and J. Emmert. 1991. Measuring Product-Category Involvement: A Multitrait-Multimethod Study. Journal of Business Research 23: 363-371.

Hair, J. F., W.C Black, B.J. Babin, and R.E. Anderson. 2014. Multivariate Data Analysis (7thed.), Edinburgh Gate, Harlow-Essex: Pearson Education.

Heinze, T. 2010. Cue congruency and Product Involvement Effects on Generation Y Attitudes. Research in Consumer Behavior 12: 75-99.

Hollensen, S. and C. Schimmelpfennig. 2013. Selection Of Celebrity Endorsers: A Case Approach To Developing An Endorser Selection Process Model. Marketing Intelligence & Planning 31 (1): 88-102.

Homer, P.M. and L.R. Kahle. 1990. Source Expertise, Time of Source Identification, and Involvement in Persuasion: An Elaborative Processing Perspective. Journal of Advertising 19 (1): 30-39.

Hsu, C. and D. McDonalds. 2002. An Examination on Multiple Celebrity Endorsers in Advertising. Journal of Product and Brand Management 11 (1): 19-29.

Hussein A. S., V. Manna, and D. Cohen. 2014. The Impact of Message Framing and Source Credibility on Breastfeeding Intention: A Social Marketing Approach. Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business 16 (2): 93-109.

Jung-Gyo, L. and J. Park. 2014. The effects of endorsement strength and celebrity-product match on the evaluation of a sports related product: the role of product involvement. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship 16 (1): 50-69.

Kahle, L. R. and P. M. Homer. 1985. Physical Attractiveness of Celebrity Endorser: A Social Adaptation Perspective. Journal of Consumer Research 11 (4): 954-961.

Kelley, H. 1967. “Attribution Theory in Social Psychology,” in D. Levine, ed. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 15 (192-238), Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Khong, K. W. and Y. L. Wu. 2013. Measuring The Impact Of Celebrity Endorsement On Consumer Behavioural Intentions: A study of Malaysian Consumers. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship 14 (3): 2-22.

Kim H. and J. Jeong. 2016. Effect Of Celebrity Endorsement In Marketing Of Musicals: Poster Versus Social Networking Site. Social Behavior and Personality 44 (8): 1243-1254.

Kirby, S. D., J. R. Ureda, R. L. Rose, and J. Hussey. 1998. Peripheral Cues and Involvement Level: Influences on Acceptance of a Mammography Message. Journal of Health Communication 3: 119–135.

Kotler, P. and K. L. Keller. 2016. Marketing Management. 15thed., New York: Pearson.

Littlejohn, S. W. and A. F. Karen. 2008. Theories of Human Communication. 9thed. Belmont, CA : Thomson Wadsworth.

Malhotra, N.K. 2010, Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation, 6thed., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

McAlister, A. R., and Bargh D. 2016. Dissuasion: The Elaboration Likelihood Model and Young Children”, Young Consumers, Vol. 17 (3): 210-225.

Mitchell, A. A. and J. C. Olson. 1981, Are Product Attribute Beliefs The Only Mediator of Advertising Effects on Brand Attitude?, Journal of Marketing Research 18 (3): 318-332.

Mowen, J. C. and M. Minor. 2001. Consumer Behavior: A Framework, 2nd ed., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

Mowen, J.C. and S.W. Brown. 1981. On Explaining and Predicting The Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsers. Advances In Consumer Research 8 (1):437-441.

Mowen, J.C. 1995. Consumer Behavior, 4th ed., New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Park C. W, and S. M. Young. 1983. Types and levels of involvement and brand attitude formation. Advances in Consumer Research 10: 320–324.

Peter, J.P. and J.C. Olson. 2004. Consumer Behavior and Marketing Strategy, 7th ed., New York: McGraw-Hill.

Petty, R. E., J.T. Cacioppoand, and D. Schumann. 1983. Central and Peripheral Routes to Advertising Effectiveness: The Moderating Role of Involvement. Journal of Consumer Research 10: 135–146.

Podsakoff, P. M., and D. R. Dalton. 1987. Research methodology in organizational studies. Journal of Management 13: 419–441.

Pughazhendi A., K.A. Baskaran, M. R.Prakash, and R. N. Balamurugan. 2012. A Study on Effectiveness of Multiple and Single Selebrity Endorsement on Considerable Product Advertisements in Chennai Perceptive, India, Far East Journal of Psychology and Business 6 (2): 11-18.

Rachita J. M.; B. K. Nirmal; and P. K. Priya. 2013. Exploring the Impact of Single Celebrity vs.Multiple Celebrity Endorsement on Consumer’sBrand Choice Behavior. International Journal of Marketing & Business Communication 3: 1-9.

Rice, D. H., K. Kelting, and R. J. Lutz. 2012. Multiple Endorsers and Multiple Endorsements: The Influence of Message Repetition, Source Congruence and Involvement on Brand Attitudes. Journal of Consumer Psychology 22: 249-259.

Roozen I. and C. Claeys. 2010. The Relative Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsement for Print Advertisement, Review of Business and Economics1: 76-89.

Roy S. and A. Pansari. 2014. Owner or endorser? Investigating The Effectiveness of Celebrity Owners of Sports Teams As Endorsers. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship 15 (2):12 – 29.

Roy S., V. Jain, and P. Rana. 2013. The Moderating Role of Consumer Personality and Source Credibility in Celebrity Endorsements. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration 5 (1): 72 -88.

Saleem, F. 2007. Young Adults Perception towards Celebrity Endorsement: A Comparative Study of Single and Multiple Celebrities Endorsements. European Journal of Economic 8: 128-139.

Schiffman, L. G, and  L.L. Kanuk. 2014. Consumer behaviour, 11th ed., New York: Prencite Hall.

Shimp, T. A. 2010. Advertising Promotion and Other Aspects of Integrated Marketing Communications, 8thed., Mason, USA: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Shuart, J. 2007. Heroes In Sport: Assessing Celebrity Endorser Effectiveness. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship 8 (2): 11-25.

Silvera D. H. and B. Austad. 2004. Factors Predicting the Effectiveness of Celebrity EndorsementAdvertisements. European Journal of Marketing 38: 1509-1528.

Solomon, R. S. 2011. Consumer Behavior, Buying, Having, and Being, 9th Edition, Boston: Pearson

Tripp, C., T. D. Jensen, and L. Carlson. 1994. The Effects of Multiple Product Endorsements by Celebrities on Consumer Attitudes and Intentions. Journal of Consumer Research 20 (4): 104-114.

Wang, H., P., Chao, and J. Y. Wang. 2015. Effects Of Fit, Consumer Involvement And The Number Of Celebrities On Consumer Behavior In An Emerging Market. Journal of International Consumer Marketing 27: 388-402.

Wei K. K., and W. Y. Li. 2013. Measuring The Impact of Celebrity Endorsement on Consumer Behavioural Intentions: A Study of Malaysian Consumers. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship 14 (3): 2 – 22.

Yang, S. C., W.C. Hung, K. Sung, and C. K. Farn. 2006. Toward E-Tailers From The Elaboration Likelihood Model Perspective. Psychology & Marketing 23 (5): 429–445.

Zaichkowsky, J. 1985. Measuring the Involvement Construct. Journal of Consumer Research 12:341-352.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 375 | views : 281


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.





Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business indexed in: 


 Indonesian Publication Index (IPI)



 Harvard Library

 The University of Manchester

 University of Oxford

 Google Scholar






Copyright of  Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business  (ISSN 1411-1128 (Print) and ISSN 2338-7238 (Online))

Creative Commons License
 Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business  is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

stats View My Stats