ANTARA ZAINICHI DAN PACHINKO: REPRESENTASI ZAINICHI KOREA DALAM NOVEL PACHINKO KARYA MIN JIN LEE

https://doi.org/10.22146/poetika.51208

Febriani Elfida Trihtarani(1*), M. Mahbubdin Ridha al Fasya(2), Nurussofa Yusticia(3), Nining Setyaningsih(4)

(1) Fakultas Ilmu Budaya
(2) 
(3) 
(4) 
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Penelitian ini membahas representasi zainichi Korea dalam novel Pachinko karya Min Jin Lee. Terdapat beberapa kategori dari zainichi Korea dalam masyarakat Jepang, yaitu pluralis, nasionalis, individualis, dan asimilasionis. Generasi pertama dalam novel ini mendapatkan perlakuan tidak setara akibat etnis mereka yang menyebabkan mereka harus hidup di kawasan kumuh. Generasi kedua direpresentasikan oleh dua tokoh yang saling berkebalikan. Tokoh Noa memiliki keinginan untuk menjadi seorang “Jepang” yang pada akhirnya memilih jalan naturalisasi. Melalui jalan naturalisasi tokoh ini dapat dianggap sebagai seorang asimilasionis yang meninggalkan identitas etnisnya dan hidup sebagai seorang warga Jepang untuk mendapatkan status sosial yang setara. Tokoh Mozasu memiliki kecenderungan berkebalikan dengan Noa karena ia tidak memilih jalan naturalisasi dan tetap mempertahankan identitas aslinya sebagai orang Korea. Generasi ketiga masih mendapat ketidakpastian identitas meskipun mereka lahir dan besar di Jepang. Dengan pendidikan yang Solomon dapatkan, ia masih tetap dipandang sebelah mata dan masih dianggap tidak berada di posisi yang setara dengan orang Jepang. Bisnis pachinko yang selalu diasosiasikan dengan pendatang Korea adalah bisnis, yang ditekuni oleh masing-masing tokoh generasi kedua bahkan ketiga, menunjukkan bahwa status zainichi Korea tidak akan semudah itu berubah dan mereka akan tetap berada dalam posisi marjinal yang dipandang sebelah mata.

 

Kata kunci: pachinko, zainichi, krisis identitas, Korea, Jepang

 

This study discusses the representation of Korean zainichi in Pachinko novel by Min Jin Lee. There are several categories of Korean zainichi amongst Japanese society, which are pluralist, nationalist, individualist, and assimilationist. The first generation in this novel is treated unfairly because of their ethnicity which makes them live in slum area. The second generation is represented by two contradictive characters. The first character, Noa, wants to be Japanese, which leads him to choose the path of naturalization. Through naturalization, this character is regarded as an assimilationist who ignores his ethnic identity and lives as a Japanese citizen to obtain equal social status. Meanwhile, the second character, Mozasu has the opposite tendency of Noa’s. He does not choose the path of naturalization and tends to maintain his true identity as a Korean. The third generation is left uncertain about their identity, although they were born and grow up in Japan. With his background education, Solomon as a third-generation is still underestimated and considered unequal to Japanese people. The pachinko business, which is always being associated with Korean migrants, is a business occupied by each of the second and third generation characters, showing that the status of Korean zainichi will not change easily, and they will remain in marginal position and being underestimated.

 

Keywords: pachinko, zainichi, identitiy crisis, Korea, Japan

 


Keywords


zainichi, krisis identitas, poskolonial, Korea, Jepang.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/poetika.51208

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