JEJAK DIASPORA DAN NARASI KEHIDUPAN PICTURE BRIDES DALAM NOVEL THE BUDDHA IN THE ATTIC KARYA JULIE OTSUKA

https://doi.org/10.22146/poetika.49352

Sindhy Sintya Mianani(1*)

(1) Universitas Airlangga
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Amerika Serikat yang dikenal sebagai negeri para imigran telah menarik jutaan imigran yang bermimpi untuk memiliki masa depan cerah ke pesisir negaranya. Sebagai negeri para imigran, pengalaman diaspora para imigran di Amerika sejatinya merupakan topik yang telah banyak dieksplorasi dalam dunia kesusastraan. Akan tetapi, sedikit sekali yang berbicara mengenai diaspora warga Jepang di Amerika. Sebagai sebuah awalan, studi ini menguraikan pengalaman diaspora para perempuan Jepang yang mengadu nasib di daratan Amerika sebagai picture brides dalam novel The Buddha in the Attic karya Julie Otsuka. Tidak hanya berbicara mengenai kehidupan picture brides di Amerika, The Buddha in the Attic juga menceritakan pengalaman imigran Jepang pada masa Perang Dunia II yang berujung pada kamp-kamp konsentrasi. Untuk menguraikan permasalahan tersebut, studi ini menerapkan teori Historical Poetics yang diprakarsai oleh Alan Swingewood untuk memperoleh hasil analisis yang rigid. Dikemas dengan subjek orang pertama jamak (first person plural), Julie Otsuka menciptakan sebuah narasi tentang kehidupan para picture brides dan imigran Jepang secara kolektif. Tindakan yang dilakukan sang penulis ini, disinyalir sebagai bentuk post-memory-nya sebagai generasi ketiga imigran Jepang (sansei) di Amerika. 

 

Kata kunci: diaspora, narasi, historical poetics, picture brides, post-memory

 

United States of America which is acknowledged as the land of immigrants has lured millions of those who seek for a bright future to its coast. As the land of immigrants, diaporic phenomenon in America has been explored extensively in literary world. However, a very few number has yet to conduct a study on Japanese diasporic phenomenon in America. To begin with, this study attempts to describe the diaporic phenomenon of Japanese women who came to America as picture brides in Julie Otsuka’s The Buddha in the Attic. Not only narrating the the story of picture brides in America, The Buddha in the Attic also tells the story of Japanese migrants who ended up in concentracion camps during the Word War II period. To solve the problem aforementioned, this study applies Alan Swingewood’s Historical Poetics to get adequate results. As the novel is written in first person plural prounoun, Julie Otsuka is said to create narratives on Japanese picture brides and Japanese migrants collectively. What the author does is assumed as the post-memory of being the third generation of Japanese migrants (sansei) in America.

 

Keywords: diaspora, narratives, historical poetics, picture brides, post-memory

 


Keywords


diaspora, narratives, historical poetics, picture brides, post-memory

Full Text:

PDF


References

Adams, J. T. 1931. The Epic of America. Boston: Little Brown & Co.

Amadeo, K. 2019, February 19. What Is the American Dream? The History That Made It Possible. Retrieved April 13, 2019, from The Balance: https://www.thebalance.com/what-is-the-american-dream-quotes-and-history-3306009

Clark, W. A. 2003. Immigration and the American Dream. In W. A. Clark, Immigrants and the American Dream: Remaking the Middle Class (pp. 1—28). New York: Guilford Publications.

Cullen, J. 2003. THE AMERICAN DREAM: A Short History of an Idea That Shaped a Nation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians. 1983. Personal Justice Denied. National Park Service.

Damono, S. D. 1978. Sosiologi Sastra: Sebuah Pengantar Ringkas. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Fagler, J. 2018. The “Picture Bride Problem”: Experiences of and Attitudes Toward Japanese Picture Brides in California 1908-1920. Dissertation. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press.

Fujii, J. A. 1993. Complicit Fictions: The Subject in the Modern Japanese Prose Narrative. Berkeley: Univ of California Press.

Fujiwara, M. 2018. 日本人と [集団主義]. 317—338.

Gloor, L. B. 2006. From the Melting Pot to the Tossed Salad Metaphor: Why Coercive Assimilation Lacks the Flavors Americans Crave. Vol. 04, 29—32. diakses dari https://hilo.hawaii.edu/campuscenter/hohonu/volumes/documents/Vol04x06FromtheMeltingPot.pdf

Hallam, J. 2004. Slavery and The Making of America. Retrieved May 01, 2019, from Thirteen Media with Impact: https://www.thirteen.org/wnet/slavery/experience/family/history.html

Hirsch, M. 2012. The Generation of Postmemory: Writing and Visual Culture After the Holocaust. New York: Columbia University Press .

Jefferson, T. 1776, July 04. The Declaration of Independence 4th July 1776. Retrieved May 01, 2019, from National Humanities Center: americainclass.org

Kaplan, L. E. 2009. The Making of the American Dream : An Unconventional History of the United States from 1607 to 1900. New York: Algora Publishing.

Kivisto, P. 2004. What is the Canonical Theory of Assimilation? Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 40.2, 149—163.

Klemm, D. 1983. The hermeneutical theory of Paul Ricoeur. London: Associated University Presses.

Kramer, L., & Maza, S. 2006. A Companion to Western Historical Thought. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.

Lee, C. 2003. Prostitutes and Picture Brides: Chinese and Japanese Immigration, Settlement, and American NationBuilding, 1870—1920 . Working Paper 70, 1—47.

Oh, Y. 2017. “Korean Picture Brides in Hawaii: Historical and Literary Narratives. Journal of Literature and Art Studies, Vol. 7, No. 12, 1632—1644. doi: 10.17265/2159-5836/2017.12.016.

Okihiro, G. Y. 2001. The Columbia Guide to Asian American History. New York: Columbia University Press.

Otsuka, J. 2011. An Interview with Julie Otsuka.

Otsuka, J. 2011, August 16. Finding Inspiration in History's Dark Corners. (L. Reynolds, Interviewer)

Otsuka, J. 2011. Julie Otsuka Interview. (A. Duncan, Interviewer)

Otsuka, J. 2011, October 14. Julie Otsuka: Interview. (P. Ryan, Interviewer)

Otsuka, J. 2011. The Buddha in the Attic. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Ratna, N. K. 2010. Sastra dan Cultural Studies: Representasi Fiksi dan Fakta. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Ratna, N. K. 2015. Teori, Metode dan Teknik Penelitian Sastra. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Sato, K. 2015. 「写真花嫁」と『写真花嫁』一佐藤 (trans. 'Picture Bride' and Picture Brides: Between Fact and Fiction). 山形大学紀要(人文科学)第15巻第2号, 123—136.

Shirane, H., Suzuki, T., & Lurie, D. 2016. THE CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF JAPANESE LITERATURE. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Swingewood, A. 1987. Sociological Poetics and Aesthetics Theory. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Tanaka, K. 2000. Photographs of Japanese Picture Brides: Visualizing Immigrants and Practicing Immigration Policy in Early Twentieth-Century United States. In U.S Immigration in Global Context (pp. 27—57). New York: Routledge.

Tanaka, K. 2009. Marriage as Citizen’s Privilege: Japanese Picture Marriage and American Social Justice. Nanzan Review of American Studies, 131—150.

Taum, Y. Y. 1997. Pengantar Teori Sastra. Flores: Nusa Indah.

Tittenbrun, J. 2015. The Myth of American Dream. World Scientific New, 1—16.

Tiwary, N. 2009. New Historicism and Arundhati Roy's Works. Journal of Literature, Culture and Media Studies, 79—96.

Tsutsui, W. M. 2007. A Companion To Japanese History. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Twine, N. 1978. The Genbunitchi Movement. Its Origin, Development, and Conclusion. Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 33 No. 3, 333—356.

Wiyatmi. 2013. Sosiologi Sastra. Yogyakarta: Kanwa Publisher.

Yanagisawa, I. T. 2010. 「写真花嫁」たちのオーラル・ヒストリー ──カリフォルニア州立大学サクラメント校一世オーラル・ヒストリー・プロジェクトより (trans) Oral Histories of “Picture brides”. Issei Oral History Project, Japanese American Archival Collection California State University, 61—74.

 



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/poetika.49352

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 256 | views : 198

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal POETIKA

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Poetika : Jurnal Ilmu Sastra Indexed by:

Indonesia One SearchGoogle ScholarIndonesian Publication Index (IPI)Crossref 

Registered number ISSN 2338-5383 (print) ; 2503-4642 (online)


supervised by 

 

free
web stats View My Stats