Dampak Redistribusi Tanah Terhadap Penghidupan Masyarakat di Kawasan Fora 2 (Ternate) Maluku Utara

https://doi.org/10.22146/mgi.84620

Dewi Gafuraningtyas(1*), Nurasih Setiatin(2), Tommy Anggrivianto(3)

(1) Departemen Geografi, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
(2) Kantor Pertanahan Kota Ternate, Ternate, Indonesia
(3) Kantor Pertanahan Kota Ternate, Ternate, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Abstrak Reforma agraria, atau land reform plus, adalah konsep yang bertujuan untuk mengubah struktur kepemilikan dan penggunaan tanah demi mengurangi ketimpangan kepemilikan dan ketidakadilan di sektor pertanian. Di Kelurahan Foramadiahi, Ternate, Provinsi Maluku Utara sudah dilakukan bagian dari reforma agraria yakni redistribusi tanah hasil pelepasan kawasan hutan berdasarkan Surat Keputusan Pelepasan Kawasan Hutan Nomor 1001/MENLHK/SEKJEN/PLA.2/11/2019 di tahun 2021. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis dampak reforma agraria, khususnya redistribusi tanah, terhadap kehidupan masyarakat di Kawasan Fora 2, Kelurahan Foramadiahi setelah 2 (dua) tahun pelaksanaan program tersebut. Melalui pendekatan kualitatif dengan mewawancarai 42 subjek penerima Tanah Objek Reforma Agraria (TORA), penelitian ini mengungkapkan bahwa pemberian kepastian hukum terhadap tanah yang sebelumnya tidak dimiliki telah memberikan kepuasan kepada masyarakat. Meskipun demikian, dampak ekonominya belum signifikan dirasakan oleh masyarakat. Pengakuan hukum atas kepemilikan tanah secara efektif telah mencegah praktik penyerobotan lahan, munculnya mafia tanah, dan mengurangi masalah-masalah pertanahan lainnya di lokasi penelitian. Namun, kendala utama terletak pada kurangnya pendampingan dalam pengelolaan hasil pertanian, yang menjadi faktor penghambat peningkatan nilai tambah produk pertanian. Diharapkan bahwa rencana pemberian penataan akses di tahun 2023, serta pendampingan dalam pengelolaan pertanian, akan memberikan dampak positif pada perekonomian masyarakat Kawasan Fora 2 di masa mendatang.

 

Abstract Agrarian reform, or land reform plus, is a concept that aims to change the structure of land ownership and use in order to reduce ownership inequality and injustice in the agricultural sector. In Foramadiahi Village, Ternate, North Maluku Province, part of agrarian reform has been carried out, namely, the redistribution of land resulting from the release of forest areas based on Forest Area Release Decree Number 1001/MENLHK/ SEKJEN/PLA.2/11/2019 in 2021. This study aims to analyze the impact of agrarian reform, especially land redistribution, on the lives of people in Fora 2 Area, Foramadiahi Village, after two years of program implementation. Through a qualitative approach, interviewing 42 subjects who received Land for Agrarian Reform Objects (TORA), this study reveals that providing legal certainty over previously unowned land has satisfied the community. However, the economic impact has not been significantly felt by the community. Legal recognition of land ownership has effectively prevented land- grabbing practices, the emergence of land mafias, and reduced other land problems in the research locations. However, the main obstacle lies in the lack of assistance in the management of agricultural products, which is an inhibiting factor in increasing the added value of agricultural products. It is expected that the plan to provide access arrangements in 2023, as well as assistance in agricultural management, will have a positive impact on the economy of the Fora 2 community in the future.


Keywords


reforma agraria; geografi manusia; sosial; ekonomi

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/mgi.84620

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