Determinan kesenjangan kemiskinan desa-kota di Indonesia

https://doi.org/10.22146/mgi.80932

Dominicus Savio Priyarsono(1*), Miryam BLSK Wijaya(2), Ely Elprida Sigiro(3)

(1) Departemen Ilmu Ekonomi, Fakultas Ekonomi dan Manajemen, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia
(2) Jurusan Ilmu Ekonomi, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Katolik Parahyangan, Bandung, Indonesia
(3) Jurusan Ilmu Ekonomi, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Katolik Parahyangan, Bandung, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Abstrak.  Artikel ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi beberapa faktor yang diperkirakan menentukan kesenjangan kemiskinan desa-kota di Indonesia. Data antar-provinsi tahun 2000-2020 dianalisis dengan teknik regresi data panel. Kesenjangan kemiskinan desa-kota (variabel dependen) diukur dengan dua cara, yakni selisih dan rasio angka kemiskinan desa-kota.  Variabel-variabel independen yang dianalisis adalah produk domestik regional bruto per kapita, produktivitas sektor pertanian, transformasi perdesaan, indeks kapasitas fiskal, dan rata-rata jumlah tahun bersekolah penduduk perdesaan.  Kedua model itu memberikan hasil estimasi tanda parameter yang konsisten searah. Variabel independen yang secara signifikan berbanding terbalik dengan kedua variabel dependen adalah produktivitas sektor pertanian dan rata-rata jumlah tahun bersekolah penduduk perdesaan, sedangkan yang berbanding lurus adalah PDRB/Kapita dan indeks kapasitas fiskal.  Dengan kata lain, dua variabel independen yang pertama itu mengurangi angka kemiskinan perdesaan sedemikian efektif sehingga mampu memperkecil kesenjangan kemiskinan desa-kota.  Kebijakan pertumbuhan ekonomi dan kebijakan fiskal daerah terbukti mengurangi kemiskinan di kota lebih efektif daripada di desa, akibatnya justru berdampak memperlebar kesenjangan tersebut.  Temuan lain menunjukkan bahwa transformasi perdesaan yang diukur dengan kesempatan kerja non-pertanian di perdesaan tidak cukup efektif mengurangi angka kemiskinan di pedesaan, sehingga tidak berdampak signifikan pada kesenjangan kemiskinan desa-kota.

 

Abstract. This article analyzes some factors which might have determined rural-urban poverty gap in Indonesia.  Provincial data for the years of 2000-2020 are analyzed by using panel data regression techniques.  The gap between rural-urban poverty rates (dependent variable) is measured by two methods, i.e. rural-urban poverty difference and ratio. Gross regional product per capita, agriculture sector productivity, rural transformation, fiscal capacity index, and rural mean years of schooling are regressed on each of the gap measures. The two models give consistently equivalent signs of the estimated parameters.  The independent variables that negatively and significantly affect the dependent variables are productivity of agriculture sector and rural mean years of schooling, whereas those that are positive and significant areGDP/Capita and fiscal capacity index. In other words, the first two independent variables decrease the rural poverty rates so effectively that they can reduce the rural-urban poverty gap.  Economic growth policy and regional fiscal policy decrease poverty more effectively in urban than they do in rural areas, and hence they widen the poverty gap. Another finding shows that rural transformation that is measured by non-agriculture employment in rural areas is not so effective to reduce rural poverty, that it does not significantly effect on the poverty gap.


Keywords


kemiskinan; kesenjangan desa-kota; pertumbuhan ekonomi; transformasi struktural; pendidikan; kapasitas fiskal; produktivitas pertanian

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/mgi.80932

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