Pengaruh Mesoscale Convective System terhadap Hujan Ekstrem Pesisir Barat Sumatra

https://doi.org/10.22146/mgi.60598

Achmad Fahruddin Rais(1*), Rezky Yunita(2), Tri Setyo Hananto(3)

(1) Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG), Kemayoran, Jakarta
(2) Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG), Kemayoran, Jakarta
(3) Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG), Kemayoran, Jakarta
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Tulisan ini merupakan studi awal yang membuktikan pengaruh Mesoscale Convective System (MCS) terhadap curah hujan (CH) ekstrem di pesisir barat Sumatra dengan menggunakan citra rapidscan 10 menit Himawari-8 kanal IR1. Untuk mendapatkan data yang berkualitas, penulis melakukan koreksi data CH penakar Hellman terhadap data standar CH di Moelaboh (MLH), Sibolga (SBG), Teluk Bayur (TBR) dan Bengkulu (BKL) serta koreksi paralaks data citra Himawari-8. Dalam mengidentifikasi MCS, penulis menggunakan kriteria brightness temperature (BT) ≤ 221 derajat kelvin (K), luasan BT ≥ 10.000 km2 dan durasi ≥ 3 jam. Hasil penelitian mengindikasikan bahwa CH ekstrem bersamaan dengan keberadaaan MCS yang membuktikan bahwa CH ekstrem diakibatkan oleh MCS di MLB, SBG, TBR dan BKL. MCS tersebut sangat dipengaruhi oleh kemunculan Westerly Wind Burst (WWB) yang terhalangi oleh Bukit Barisan untuk kasus CH ekstrem di SBG dan TBR atau berinteraksi dengan angin pasat tenggara dari Samudra Hindia sebelah barat daya Sumatra untuk kasus CH ekstrem di BKL. Untuk kaus CH ekstrem di MLB, MCS terbentuk akibat interaksi angin pasat di Samudra Hindia sebelah barat Sumatra dan aliran siklonik sebelah barat MLB.

 

This paper was a preliminary study that proved the impact of the mesoscale convective system (MCS) on extreme rainfall on the west coast of Sumatra using rapid scan imagery of 10 minutes Himawari-8 channel IR1. To get qualified data, we conducted the correction of rainfall data of Hellman gauge to the rainfall standard data in Moelaboh (MLH), Sibolga (SBG), Teluk Bayur (TBR), and Bengkulu (BKL) and the parallax correction to Himawari-8 imagery data. To identify MCS, we used brightness temperature (BT) ≤ 221 K, BT area ≥ 10.000 km2 and duration ≥ 3 hours as the criteria. The results indicated that extreme rainfall occured simultaneously with MCS proved that the extreme rainfall caused by MCS in MLB, SBG, TBR, and BKL. The MCS was greatly influenced by the appearance of westerly wind burst (WWB) which was blocked by Bukit Barisan for extreme rainfall cases in SBG and TBR or interacted with the southeast trade winds of the Indian Ocean in the southwest of Sumatra for extreme rainfall case in BKL. For extreme rainfall case in MLB, MCS was formed due to the interaction of trade winds of the Indian Ocean in the west of Sumatra and cyclonic flow in the west of MLB.

 

 


Keywords


curah hujan ekstrim; mesoscale convective system; citra rapidscan IR

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/mgi.60598

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