Kajian Kualitas Air Sungai Bedog Akibat Pembuangan Limbah Cair Sentra Industri Batik Desa Wijirejo

https://doi.org/10.22146/mgi.13364

Widayati Indarsih(1*), Slamet Suprayogi(2), Margaretha Widiyastuti(3)

(1) Pusat Pengembangan dan Pemberdayaan Pendidik dan Tenaga Kependidikan Seni dan Budaya, Sleman, Yogyakarta
(2) Fakultas Geografi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(3) Fakultas Geografi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK Sungai Bedog yang mengalir di Desa Wijirejo, Pandak, Bantul,  diindikasikan telah tercemar oleh berbagai jenis limbah, termasuk limbah cair industri batik. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui : kualitas limbah cair batik; kualitas air Sungai Bedog ditinjau dari aspek fisik (suhu, TDS, TSS), kimia (pH, COD, BOD, Cu, Cr+6) dan biologi (plankton); tingkat peran serta stakeholder; dan menyusun strategi pengelolaan limbah cair batik agar tidak mencemari lingkungan.Penelitian ini menggunakan metode survei, pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan metode purposive sampling.  Contoh air diambil langsung dari air limbah batik dan air Sungai Bedog dengan 6 stasiun pengamatan, dari daerah hulu ke hilir. S1 merupakan lokasi yang belum tercampur limbah batik berada di sekitar Jembatan Pedak; S2 (+ 350 m dari S1), S3 (+ 750 m dari S2, di sekitar Jembatan Pijenan), S4 (+ 400 m dari S3) dan S5  (+ 250 m dari S4) merupakan lokasi yang telah tercampur limbah cair batik; serta S6 (+ 400 m dari S5) sebagai lokasi yang sudah tidak menerima masukan limbah batik. Data fisik, kimia dan biologi diukur langsung di lapangan dan laboratorium. Pengumpulan data peran serta stakeholder dilaksanakan dengan wawancara menggunakan kuesioner. Analisis hasil yang digunakan adalah deskriptif kualitatif.Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa kualitas limbah cair batik melampaui baku mutu. Air Sungai Bedog pada lokasi S4 telah tercemar, ditunjukkan dengan nilai rata-rata COD 28 mg/L (baku mutu 25 mg/L) dan BOD 4,8 mg/L (baku mutu 3 mg/L). S4 merupakan lokasi dengan persebaran industri batik paling rapat. Bahan-bahan organik dan anorganik dalam limbah cair batik telah meningkatkan COD dan BOD air Sungai Bedog. Berdasarkan indeks diversitas plankton, air Sungai Bedog telah tercemar pada lokasi S2, S3, S4 dan S5, sedangkan lokasi S1 dan S6 masih dalam kategori tidak tercemar. Limbah cair batik secara akumulatif dapat mempengaruhi sifat fisik dan kimia ekosistem sungai, sehingga akan menurunkan indeks diversitas plankton yang hidup di dalamnya. Tingkat peran serta 7 stakeholder pemerintah daerah setempat mayoritas (57,14%) dalam kategori sedang. Arahan strategi pengelolaan lingkungan dilakukan dengan : peningkatan peran serta pengrajin batik secara individu (penerapan produksi bersih dan minimalisasi limbah) dan kolektif (pembangunan cluster IPAL); peningkatan peran serta stakeholder; serta pemilihan teknologi IPAL yang tepat.

 

ABSTRACT Bedog River that flows along Wijirejo Village, Pandak, in Bantul has been indicated to be polluted by varieties of liquid waste including batik industry. The objectives of this research are : to determine the quality of batik liquid waste; the quality of Bedog River water from physical aspects (temperature, TDS, TSS); chemical aspects (pH, COD, BOD, Cu, Cr+6); and biological aspect (plankton); to measure participation of stakeholder and also to develop a management strategy to manage batik liquid waste so that it does not pollute the environment.This research use survey method, data collected by purposive sampling. Water sample is directly taken from batik liquid waste and from the Bedog River with six observation station : S1 is the location before the waste disposal point, located around Pedak Bridge; S2 (+ 350 m next to S1),  S3 (+ 750 m next to S2, located at Pijenan Bridge), S4 (+ 400 m next to S3) and S5 (+ 250 m next to S4) is location that has been polluted by batik liquid waste, and S6 (+ 400 m next to S5) is an area that is no longer able to contain more additonal batik waste. Chemical, physical and biological data is carried on in direct measurement in the field and at laboratory. Participation data of stakeholder data is carried on interview method using questionare . Result analysis used in this research is qualitative descriptive.The result of this research shows that the quality of batik liquid waste has surpassed from the quality standard. The water quality at location S4 has been polluted shown by the COD point 28 mg/L (quality standard 25 mg/L) and BOD point 4,8 mg/L (quality standard 3 mg/L). S4 is the location of which has highest density of batik industry. Both organic and inorganic materials inside batik liquid waste have increased COD and BOD of Bedog River. According to the plankton diversity index, the water of Bedog River has been polluted at S2, S3, S4 and S5 locations. S1 and S6 locations are not classified into the polluted area. Batik liquid waste gives accumulatively effects to chemical and physical river ecosystem character, thus it decreases plankton diversity index which live in it. The grade of local government stakeholder participation generally (57,14%) at middle category. The environment management strategy can be done by : improving participation of batik crafter both  individually (by applying clean production and minimalizing waste) and collectively (by building IPAL in cluster); improving participation of stakeholder; and choosing properly  technology of waste water treatment (IPAL).


Keywords


kualitas air; limbah cair batik; Sungai Bedog; water quality; batik liquid waste; Bedog River




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/mgi.13364

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Accredited Journal, Based on Decree of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia Number 30e/KPT/2018

Volume 31 No 2 the Year 2017 for Volume 35 No 2 the Year 2021

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