Kajian Kerusakan Lingkungan Karst sebagai Dasar Pelestarian Sumberdaya Air (Kasus di DAS Bribin Hulu Kabupaten Gunung Kidul Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta)

https://doi.org/10.22146/mgi.13099

Raras Endarto(1*), Totok Gunawan(2), Eko Haryono(3)

(1) Fakultas Geografi Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(2) Fakultas Geografi Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(3) Fakultas Geografi Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK Sumberdaya airtanah di Kabupaten Gunungkidul identik dengan sistem bawah tanah Bribin (DAS Bribin). Bendung Bribin 1, Bribin 2, dan Seropan berada di Desa Dadapayu Kecamatan Semanu yang dimanfaatkan untuk mencukupi kebutuhan sebagian penduduk di Kabupaten Gunungkidul. Keberadaan DAS Bribin yang sangat penting bagi kelangsungan dan kesejahteraan penduduk harus dikelola kelestariannya. Pengelolaan lingkungan guna tercapainya kelestarian sumberdaya air ditekankan pada bagian imbuhan air, yaitu DAS Bribin bagian Hulu. Identifikasi tingkat kerusakan di DAS Bribin Hulu menjadi salah satu hal yang mendesak karena daerah tersebut merupakan media pemasok sungai bawah tanah bendung Bribin, Baron, dan Seropan yang dimanfaatkan untuk kebutuhan penduduk. Tingkat kerusakan karst yang dinilai berdasarkan Morfologi berbasis cekungan/SubDAS. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan pengamatan uji lapangan dan studi literatur terkait dengan kondisi daerah penelitian. Mempertimbangkan parameter kerusakan karst, meliputi perubahan moroflogi akibat penambangan, keberadaan outlet cekungan, tutupan vegetasi, kondisi mataair, kondisi gua, dan keberadaan bangunan di atas permukaan karst dilakukan penilaian tingkat kerusakan karst. Secara administratif tingkat kerusakan karst sangat tinggi berada di Desa Kenteng, Karangasem, dan Desa Bedoyo seluas 922,27 Ha. Adapun tingkat kerusakan karst tinggi berada di Desa Ponjong, Desa Sawahan, dan Desa Sumbergiri seluas 9.424,24 Ha. Tingginya tingkat kerusakan diantaranya akibat adanya penambangan yang besar, keberadaaan mataair, keberadaan bangunan diatas permukaan karst. Upaya strategi pelestarian dan pengelolaan dilakukan dengan berbasis karakteristik karst dan berbasis kewilayahan. Strategi kebijakan pengelolan karst berbasis karakteristik karst ditekan pada kenampakan permukaan (eksokarst). Strategi kebijakan pengelolaan karst berbasis kewilayahan merupakan rencana pengelolaan kawasan karst secara menyeluruh. Pengelolaan sumberdaya air erat kaitannya dengan keberadaan komponen karst (eksokarst), meliputi pengelolaan mataair, telaga, gua, dan bukit karst menjadi upaya penting dalam pengelolaan sumberdaya air. Pengelolaan berbasis kewilayahan mempertimbangkan beberapa faktor, diantaranya adalah keberadaannya (morfologi), konservasi kehutanan, dan arahan peruntukan fungsi. 

 

ABSTRACT Groundwater resources in Gunung Kidul Regency synonymous with underground system Bribin  (Bribin watershed). Reservoir Bribin 1, Bribin 2, and Seropan located in the Dadapayu village Semanu Sub-District utilize to comply needs of population  in Gunung Kidul Regency. Existance of Bribin Watershed is very important for continuance and welfare of population which must be managed sustainability. Environmental management in order to achieve sustainability of water resources was emphasized on water recharge, namely Bribin Watershed of upstream section. Identification extent of damage in Bribin Watershed into one of urgency things because the area as underground supplier into reservoir river of Bribin, Baron, and Seropan was utilized for the needs of population. Extent damage of karst is assessed based on morphology of karst basin. This research was conducted using field observations and literature studies related to condition os study area. Considered of  karst damage parameters, includes morphology change caused by mining, existance outlet basin, land cover, condition of springs, caves, and existance of building over the karst surface must be conducted assessment in extent of damage. Administratively, extent of damage karst is very high located in Kenteng, Karangasem, and Bedoyo Village, area of 922.27 hectares. The high levels of extent of damage karst is Ponjong, Sawahan, Sumbergiri Village, area of 9424.24 hectares. The high levels of extent of damage karst among others, existance of great mining, springs, and building over the karst surface. Efforts conservation and management strategies commits based on characteristic karst and regional. Karst management policy strategies based on characteristic karst was pressed in surface appearace(eksokarst). Karst management policy strategies based on regional are management karst area plan overall. Water resources management is related to existence of karst component (eksokarst), include management of springs, reservoir, caves and karst hills into an important effort of water resources. Management based on regionally considers several factors, among others, existance of morphology, forest conservation, and landing of design function.


Keywords


karst; kerusakan; pengelolaan sumberdaya air; karst; damage; management of water resources

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/mgi.13099

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Accredited Journal, Based on Decree of the Minister of Research, Technology and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia Number 30e/KPT/2018

Volume 31 No 2 the Year 2017 for Volume 35 No 2 the Year 2021

ISSN  0215-1790 (print) ISSN 2540-945X  (online)

 

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