Dampak Erupsi Merapi 2010 terhadap Pemanfaatan Lahan dan Aktivitas Perekonomian Masyarakat di Daerah Aliran Sungai Gendol

https://doi.org/10.22146/mgi.13071

Alvyntha Glaudia Ardianingrum(1*), Danang Sri Hadmoko(2), Lutfhi Muta’ali(3)

(1) Badan Pertanahan Nasional,Kementerian Agraria dan Tata Ruang Republik Indonesia
(2) Fakultas Geografi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(3) Fakultas Geografi, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK Perubahan pemanfaatan lahan pasca erupsi menyebabkan perubahan aktivitas perekonomian masyarakat, terutama untuk pemanfaatan lahan pertanian. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah :  (1). Mengidentifikasi dampak erupsi Merapi 2010 terhadap perubahan  pemanfaatan penggunaan lahan; (2). Menganalisis dampak perubahan pemanfaatan penggunaan lahan  terhadap aktivitas perekonomian (matapencaharian) masyarakat setempat; (3). Mengevaluasi dan merekomendasi upaya pemulihan ekonomi masyarakat pasca erupsi. Perubahan penggunaan lahan diperoleh dari overlay Peta Penggunaan Lahan Sebelum Erupsi dengan Peta Penggunaan Lahan Sesudah Erupsi. Analisa daya pulih rumahtangga diperoleh dari wawancara. Penyamplingan dilakukan di Dusun dengan purposive sampling, mempertimbangkan daerah tersebut termasuk di daerah terdampak total atau sebagian dan jumlah korban KK terbanyak dan sedikit. Pengambilan sampel di KRB 3 sebanyak 50 responden, KRB 2 sebanyak 30 responden, dan KRB 1 sebanyak 15 responden. Pengambilan responden di setiap Dusun menggunakan metode simple random sampling karena memperhatikan keragaman populasi yang relatif  homogen. Variabel yang dianalisa meliputi asset, akses, dan aktivitas masyarakat. Jenis penggunaan lahan mengalami penambahan pascaerupsi yaitu penambahan shelter dengan luas 140,66 Ha. Penggunaan lahan yang berkurang luasanya adalah semak belukar 312,994 Ha, kebun 292,702 Ha, rumput 30,514, dan tegalan 2155,698 Ha. Sedangkan penggunaan lahan yang bertambah luasannya adalah pemukiman 2222,664 Ha, sawah irigasi 428,584 Ha, dan shelter 140,66 Ha. Tingkat daya pulih rendah lebih besar yaitu 65%, dan daya pulih tinggi sebesar 35%. Dari ketiga variabel asset, akses, dan aktivitas, variabel asetlah yang memiliki kontribusi berpengaruh lebih besar.

 

ABSTRACT Gendol Watershed be a research location because this watershed is the most severely affected. Cangkringan was chosen as the focus area on this research because this area as one of the District in Sleman that located on the slopes of Mount Merapi and the resources was affected. The changing of land use after the eruption can changes the economic activity of the communities, particularly for agricultural. The aims of this research are: (1). Identify the impact of Merapi eruption in 2010 for land use changes, (2). Analyzing the impact of land use changes for economic activities (livelihood) on local community; (3). Evaluation and recommendation public economic recovery efforts after the eruption. The land use changes acquired from the result overlay of Land Use before eruption and Land Use after eruption. Analysis of household resilience derived from the interviews. Sampling area on Kepuhharjo Village, Wukirsari , Glagahharjo and Argomulyo because this area was the greatest affected area. Sampling this area was done with purposive sampling, considering this area included in the severely affected or partial. Respondents of KRB 3 are 50 respondents, KRB 2 are 30 respondents, and KRB 1 are 15 respondents. Respondents in each Village was choosen by simple random sampling method because the observed variability is relatively homogeneous population. Variables analyzed include the assets, access, and community activities. Type of land use have increased post-eruption is shelters area 140,66 Ha. Land use was reduced by bush 312.994 ha , farm 292.702 ha, grass 30.514, and field 2155.698 Ha. Land use was improved by settlement 2222.664 ha, 428.584 ha of irrigated rice fields, and shelter 140.66 Ha. The changing of land use on post-eruption has a positive and negative impact on societies. The positive side for some communities provide new livelihoods, and  negative  impact the public land could not be processed, many homes are destroyed and majority communities lost their occupation. Resilience of communities are in low classified 65 %. From the three variables, asset variables that have the largest contribution affect on resilience.


Keywords


dampak erupsi; pemanfaatan lahan; aktivitas perekonomian; daya pulih rumahtangga; eruption impacts; land use; economic activity; resilience




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/mgi.13071

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