Bisikan atau Suara Lantang: Perjalanan Advokasi Kebijakan Larangan Penggunaan Plastik Sekali-Pakai Melalui Partisipasi Pemuda di Provinsi DKI Jakarta dan Bali

https://doi.org/10.22146/studipemudaugm.83978

Binar Asri Lestari(1*), Safendrri Komara Ragamustari(2), Fajar Bambang Hirawan(3)

(1) School of Government and Public Policy Indonesia
(2) School of Government and Public Policy Indonesia
(3) 
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Policy making in a democratic country must be inclusive—involving the participation of various segments of society, youth is no exception to be left behind. The attempt made by the public to influence this process is called policy advocacy. There are various problems in this country that require policy advocacy, one of which is the climate crisis. Since the problem is quite complex and has many sub-facets, the climate crisis needs a serious policy instrument from the government. One of the issues that is closely related to the climate crisis is the use of single-use plastic bags. This study aims to look at youth participation in policy advocacy related to the ban on the single-use plastic bags in DKI Jakarta and Bali Provinces. Using a qualitative approach, this study compares youth organizations that carry out policy advocacy in each province—namely Gerakan Indonesia Diet Kantong Plastik (GIDKP) in DKI Jakarta and Bye Bye Plastics Bag (BBPB) in Bali. Based on Hart’s ladder of youth participation, it appears that youth participation in GIDKP’s campaign activities is at level 6 (adult-inisiated shared decisions with youth) while BBPB’s is already at level 8 (youth-initiated shared decisions with adults)—but only reaches level 3 (tokenism) for direct government lobbying. Thus, based on Gen and Wright’s framework of policy advocacy strategies , it can be concluded that GIDKP carries out direct reform strategy whilst BBPB tends to use popular power strategy. There needs to be a collaboration between both organization’s specific strategies and competencies to achieve their mutual policy advocacy goal.



Keywords


policy advocacy; youth participation; single-use plastic

Full Text:

PDF


References

Antara News 2020. “Aktivis: Larangan kantong plastik munculkan kearifan lokal.”. Jakarta: Antara News Diakses pada Juni 12, 2022 (https://www.antaranews.com/berita/1585342/aktivis-larangan-kantong-plastik-munculkan-kearifan-lokal).

Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS). 2019. Statistik Politik 2019: Pemilu 1955-2015. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik. Diakses pada 20 Oktober. 2023 (https://www.bps.go.id/publication/2019/12/17/0da6c0d9d84d5200d4d38799/statistik-politik-2019.html)

Bartlett, L., dan Frances Vavrus. 2017. “Comparative Case Studies: An Innovative Approach.” Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) 1(1). doi:10.7577/njcie.1929.

Bohensky, Erin., Alex Smajgl, dan Tom David Brewer. 2012. “Patterns in Household-Level Engagement with Climate Change in Indonesia.” Nature Climate Change 3(4):348–351. doi:10.1038/nclimate1762.

Brown, Colin. 2003. A Short History of Indonesia: The Unlikely Nation? Short History of Asia Series. Crows Nest. NSW: Allen and Unwin.

Chamisa, Shingirayi, dan Elvin Shava. 2016. “Youth Involvement in Policy Making: A Case of South Africa.” Journal of Social Sciences 49(1-2):165-174. doi:10.1080/09718923.2016.11893609.

Mongabay. 2022. “Hari Bumi 2022: Kolaborasi Berbagai Pihak Mengurangi Sampah Plastik.”, April 25. Diakses pada Juli 10, 2022 (https://www.mongabay.co.id/2022/04/25/hari-bumi-2022-kolaborasi-berbagai-pihak-mengurangi-sampah-plastik/).

Checkoway, Barry. 2011. “What is youth participation?” Children and Youth Services Review 33(2):340–345. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2010.0.

Conner, Jerusha., C. Nathan Ober, dan Amanda S. Brown. 2016. “The Politics of Paternalism: Adult and Youth Perspectives on Youth Voice in Public Policy.” Teachers College Record 118(8):1-48.

Brown, Catherine C. 2016. “Funding for Social Movements.” Sociology Compass 10(4):330–339. doi:10.1111/soc4.12362

Delgado, M., dan L. Staples. 2008. Youth-Led Community Organizing: Theory and Action. New York: Oxford University Press.

Dewi, I Gusti Ayu Y. 2018. “Peran Generasi Milenial Dalam Pengelolaan Sampah Plastik Di Desa Penatih Dangin Puri Kecamatan Denpasar Timur Kota Denpasar.” Public Inspiration: Jurnal Administrasi Publik 3(2):84-92. https://doi.org/10.22225/pi.3.2.2018.84-92.

Dietplastik Indonesia. 2018. “Pemerintah Kabupaten/Kota di Indonesia Rumuskan Strategi Pelarangan Kantong Plastik Untuk Mewujudkan Pengurangan Sampah 2025.” Diakses pada Agustus 19, 2022 (https://dietkantongplastik.info/pemerintah-kabupaten-kota-di-indonesia-rumuskan-strategi-pelarangan-kantong-plastik-untuk-mewujudkan-pengurangan-sampah-2025/).

Earl, Jennifer., Thomas V. Maher dan Thomas Elliot. 2017. “Youth, Activism, and Social Movement.” Journal of Research on Adolescence.

Frederickson, H. G. 1982. “The Recovery of Civism in Public Administration.” Public Administration Review 42(6):501–50.

Gen, Sheldon., dan Amy Conley Wright. 2013. “Policy Advocacy Organizations: A Framework Linking Theory and Practice.” Journal of Policy Practice 12(3):163–93. doi:10.1080/15588742.2013.795477.

Gen, Sheldon., dan Amy Conley Wright. 2020. Nonprofits in Policy Advocacy. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-43696-4.

Geyer, Roland., Jambeck Jenna, dan Kara Lavender Law. 2017. “Production, use, and fate of all plastics ever made.” Science Advances 3(7). doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1700782.

Goodwin, Nicholas dan Irma Martam. 2014. Indonesian Youth in The 21st Century. Jakarta: UNFPA Indonesia.

Habermas, Jurgen. 1991. The structural transformation of the public sphere: An inquiry into a category of bourgeois society. Cambridge, MA: MIT press.

Hart, Roger A. 1992. Children’s participation: from tokenism to citizenship. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Centre.

Hart, Roger. A. 1997. Children’s participation. New York: UNICEF.

Hart, Roger. A. 2008. “Stepping back from the ladder: reflections on a model of participatory work with children.” Pp. 19–31 in Participation and Learning, edited by A. Reid, B.B. Jensen, J. Nikel, and V. Simovska. Midtown Manhattan, NYC: Springer.

Head, Brian. W. 2011. “Why not ask them? Mapping and promoting youth participation.” Children and Youth Services Review 33(4): 541–547. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2010.0.

Horwath, J., Kalyva, E., dan Spyru, S. 2012. “I want my experiences to make a difference” promoting participation in policy-making and service development by young people who have experienced violence.” Children and Youth Services Review 34(1): 155–162. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.0.

Plasticdiet. 2021. “Jakarta Umumkan Pengurangan Penggunaan Kantong Plastik Sekali Pakai.” 2021b. Gerakan Indonesia Diet Kantong Plastik. Diakses pada July 01, 2022 (https://dietkantongplastik.info/jakarta-umumkan-pengurangan-penggunaan-kantong-plastik-sekali-pakai/).

Koenig, Heidi. O. 2005. “Empowerment in local government administration: The case of Elgin, Illinois.” The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal 10(1).

Kurniadi, Hayatullah dan Mohamad Hizalasi. 2017. “Strategi Komunikasi Dalam Kampanye Diet Kantong Plastik Oleh GIDKP Di Indonesia.” Medium Jurnal Ilmiah Fakultas Ilmu Komunikasi 6(1):1-11. https://doi.org/10.25299/medium.2017.vol6(1).1085.

Moore, M.H. 1995. Creating Public Value: Strategic Management in Government. London: Harvard University Press.

Murti, Desideria Cempaka W. 2013. “Keyboard Action End up Political Party: Understanding the Intertwining Relations of Social Media Activism, Citizenship, and the Dynamics of Democracy in Indonesia.” Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies 3(2):32-53.

Murti, Desideria Cempaka W. 2016. “Reaching Our Young Citizens: Comparing Model of Japanese and Indonesian Civic Participation in the Online Sphere.” Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies 6(3):156-172.

Nalbandian, John. 1999. “Facilitating Community, Enabling Democracy: New Roles for Local Government Managers.” Public Administration Review 59(3): 187–197.

Napitupulu, Hamzah dan Haniy. 2021. “3 Intervensi Penting untuk Mendukung Pembatasan Penggunaan Plastik Sekali Pakai.” WRI Indonesia. Diakses pada June 02, 2022 (https://wri-indonesia.org/id/blog/3-intervensi-penting-untuk-mendukung-pembatasan-penggunaan-plastik-sekali-pakai).

Nielsen, Tobias D., Karl Holmberg dan Johannes Stripple,. 2019. “Need a bag? A review of public policies on plastic carrier bags – Where, how and to what effect?” Waste Management 87:428–440. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2019.02.025.

Nilan, Pam. 2017. “The ecological habitus of Indonesian student environmentalism.” Environmental Sociology 3(4):370–380. doi: 10.1080/23251042.2017.1320844.

O’Brien, Karen., Elin Selboe dan Bronwyn M. Hayward. 2018. “Exploring youth activism on climate change: dutiful, disruptive, and dangerous dissent.” Ecology and Society 23(3). doi: 10.5751/es-10287-230342.

One Island One Voice. 2022. Diakses pada June 02, 2022 (https://docs.google.com/document/d/1wRdo7599B_-TChUFJZ2WXNeVTho_A29e5iIVvw_rvrs/edit#heading=h.w057lkrkxr6b.)

OECD. 2021. “Guiding principles for open and inclusive decision making.” Diakses pada Juni 30, 2022 (https://www.involve.org.uk/resource/oecd-guiding-principles-open-and-inclusive-decision-making).

Parker, Lynette dan Pam Nilan. 2013. Adolescents in Contemporary Indonesia. New York: Routledge.

Rauch, Jeffrey. 2019. “Generation next - The Economist Readership.” The Economist Readership. Diakses pada Juni 27, 2022 (https://web.archive.org/web/20190313195431/http://te.tbr.fun/generation-next/).

Reid, Elizabeth. J. 2001. “Understanding the word “advocacy”: Context and use”. Pp. 1-7 in Nonprofit advocacy and the policy process: Structuring the inquiry into advocacy, Vol. 1. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.

Sanson, Ann V., Judith Van Hoorn, dan Susie E. L. Burke. 2019. “Responding to The Impacts of the Climate Crisis on Children and Youth”. Child Development Perspectives.

Schoch, Kurt. 2020. “Chapter 16: Case study research”. Pp. 245-258 in Research Design and Methods: An Applied Guide for the Scholar-Practitioner, edited by G.J. Burkholder, K.A. Cox, L.M. Crawford, and J.H. Hitchcock. NY: Sage Publications.

Sunardi, Y. Nadhifah. 2021. “Upaya Greenpeace dalam Mengurangi Limbah Plastik di Indonesia”. Jurnal Hubungan Internasional.

The Jakarta Post. 2020. “Another Day, Another Blunder: Jokowi’s Millennial Staff Mired in Controversy”. Diakses pada 17 November 2023. https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2020/04/16/another-day-another-blunder-presidential-expert-staff-continue-sparking-controversy.html.

The Jakarta Post. 2021. “Step Aside, Boomers: Here’s Jokowi’s New ‘Millennials’ Team.” The Jakarta Post. Diakses pada Juni 28, 2022 (https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2019/11/22/step-aside-boomers-heres-jokowis-new-millennials-team.html).

UNEP. 2018. Legal Limits on Single-Use Plastics and Microplastics: A Global Review of National Laws and Regulations. Diakses pada Juni 13, 2022 (https://www.unep.org/resources/report/legal-limits-single-use-plastics-and-microplastics).

UNEP. 2018. Single-use Plastics: A Roadmap for Sustainability. Diakses pada Juni 27, 2022 (https://www.unep.org/resources/report/single-use-plastics-roadmap-sustainability).

Vasarhelyi, K. 2021. “The Climate Impact of Single Use Plastics”. University of Colorado Boulder.

Wandari, Ni Kadek Mita A. dan Gede Sri Darma. “Pengelolaan Karakter Green Behavior pada Generasi Milenial dalam Meningkatkan Minat Penggunaan Green Product.” Jurnal Akuntansi dan Manajemen 17(2):48-57. https://doi.org/10.36406/jam.v17i02.305

White, Ben, dan Suzanne Naafs. 2012. “Generasi antara: refleksi tentang studi pemuda Indonesia.” Jurnal Studi Pemuda 1(2):89-106.

World Bank. 2014. World bank and environment in Indonesia. Diakses pada Juni 13, 2022 (http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/indonesia/brief/world-bank-and-environment-in-indonesia).

World Bank. 2016. Project performance assessment report Indonesia. Diakses pada Juni 13, 2022 (http://ieg.worldbank.org/Data/reports/PPAR_Indonesia.Clmt_.ChgDPL.pdf).

UNDESA. 2015. “World Youth Report 2015”. UNDESA” Diakses pada Juni 2022, (https://www.un.org/development/desa/youth/world-youth-report/2015-2.html/).



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/studipemudaugm.83978

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 990 | views : 629

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Studi Pemuda

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 


   Jurnal Studi Pemuda (Online ISSN 2527-3639Print ISSN 2252-9020)  is published by the Youth Studies Centre in collaboration with Faculty of Social and Political Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada.  

 

View My Stats