A Brief Review of Efficacious Plants in the World: Tagetes (Marigold)


Meutia Zahara(1*), Vera Nazhira Arifin(2), Syarifah Farissi Hamama(3)

(1) Postgraduate Program of Public Health, Universitas Muhammadiyah Aceh, Jl. Muhammadiyah, No. 91, Batoeh, Lueng Bata, Banda Aceh 23245, Indonesia; Department of Biology, Islamic Faculty, Universitas Muhammadiyah Aceh, Jl. Muhammadiyah, No. 91, Batoeh, Lueng Bata, Banda Aceh 23245, Indonesia.
(2) Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Muhammadiyah Aceh, Jl. Muhammadiyah, No. 91, Batoeh, Lueng Bata, Banda Aceh 23245, Indonesia.
(3) Department of Educational Biology, Teacher Training and Education Faculty, Abulyatama University, Jln. Blang bintang lama KM 8,5 Lampoh Keude, Aceh Besar 23372, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Tagetes is a genus consisting of several efficacious plant species known as marigold, which is native to Mexico and has  spread worldwide due to its ability to adapt to different soil conditions. This genus is very popular among gardeners because it’s easy to cultivate, adaptable, produces flowers all year round, has a free flowering habit, short duration, and the flower has an attractive color and shape. It has many flowers of varying colors such as red, orange, yellow, mixed red-orange or red-yellow, but the yellow and orange color are the most popular. The flowers contain many carotenoids, which act as antioxidants, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogen, nematicide, and cosmetics. The carotenoid can also cure fever, epileptic fits, astringent, scabies, liver complaints, stomachache, sore throat, and  can be used as a natural moisturizer, and natural mosquito repellent Besides its use as a medicinal plant, Tagetes is also used as ornamental plants and edible plants. This manuscript’s endeavour is to include some important investigations and studies about the general description, phytochemicals compounds and essential oils, medicinal uses, natural pesticides, and food and beverage uses of the marigolds.



Tagetes; Marigold; Efficacious plant

Full Text:



Adams, R.P., 2017., Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry, ed. 4.1, Allured Publishing, Carol Stream, IL.

Adiyasa, M.R. & Meiyanti., 2021. Pemanfaatan obat tradisional di Indonesia: distribusi dan faktor demografis yang berpengaruh. Jurnal Biomedika dan Kesehatan, 4(3), pp.131-138. dOI: 10.18051/JBiomedKes. 2021. v4.130-138.

Ali, N.A.A. et al., 2013. Composition of Essential Oil from Tagetes minuta and its Cytotoxic, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities. Natural Product Communications, 9 (2). doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1934578X1400900233.

Alim-un-Nisa, S. et., 2018. Stability of lutein content in color extracted from marigold flower and its application in candies. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 31 (1).

Amaral, L.P. et al., 2015. Seasonal influence on the essential oil production of Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng.). Mez. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 58, pp.12-21. doi: 10.1590/S1516-8913201502462.

Ampai, P. et al., 2013. Appraisal of biological activities and identification of phenolic compound of African marigold flower extract. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 26, pp.1071-1076.

Andresen, M. & Cedergreen, N., 2010. Plant growth is stimulated by tea-seed extract: A new natural growth regulator. Hortscience, 45, pp. 1848-1853.

Andreotti, R. et al., 2012. Protective action of Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) essential oil in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) (Acari: Ixodidae) in a cattle pen trial. Veterinary Parasitology,197. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.04.045.

Ashritha, D. et al., 2022. Post harvesting and value addition in marigold. The Pharma Innovation Journal, 11, pp.1295–1299.

Armas, K. et al., 2012. Comparative Study of the Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of Five Tagetes Species Collected in Venezuela. Natural Product Communications, 7. doi: 10.1177/1934578X1200700932.

Awasthi, P., Joshi, D. & Rizal, G., 2022. Impact of Pinching on Growth and Yield of Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.). Agriculture Ecosystem Environment, 6(1). doi: 10.26480/ees.01.2022.34.38.

Aziz, E. et al., 2020. Xanthophyll: Health benefits and therapeutic insights. Life Sciences, 240. dOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2019.117104.

Az-Zahra, F.R. et al., 2021. Review: Traditional knowledge of the Dayak Tribe (Borneo) in the use of medicinal plants. Biodiversitas, 22 (10), pp.4633-46-47. dOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d221057.

Beti, J.A., 2020. Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) tanaman hias potensial multiguna. Prosiding seminar nasional pertanian dan peternakan terpadu 3. Muhammadiyah Purworejo University. ISBN: 978-602-60782-2-3.

Bhave, A. et al., 2020. Influence of harvest date and postharvest treatment on carotenoid and flavonoid composition in French marigold flowers. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 68 pp.7880–7889. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.0c02042

Blanco, L. & Thiagarajan, T., 2017. Ethno-botanical study of medicinal plants used by the yucatec maya in the northern district of belize. International Journal of Herbal Medicine, 5(4), pp. 33- 42.

Boonnoun, P. et al., 2017. Production of free lutein by simultaneous extraction and de-esterification of marigold flowers in liquefied dimethyl ether (DME)–KOH–EtOH mixture. Food and Bioproduct Processing, 106, pp.193–200. doi: 10.1016/j.fbp.2017.10.002.

Burlec, A.F. et al., 2021. Phytochemical Profile, Antioxidant Activity, and Cytotoxicity Assessment of Tagetes erecta L. Flowers. Molecules, 26(5), 121. doi: 10.3390/molecules26051201

Buscemi, S. et al., 2018. The effect of lutein on eye and extra-eye heaoh. Nutrients, 10, 1321. doi: 10.3390/nu10091321

Casella, P. et al., 2021. Optimization of lutein extraction from scenedesmus almeriensis using pressurized liquid extraction. Chemical Engineering Transaction, 87, pp.475–480. doi: 10.3303/CET2187080

Cannavale, C.N. et al., 2019. Serum Lutein is related to Relational Memory Performance. Nutrients, 11(4), 768. doi:10.3390/nu11040768

Cezare-Gomes, E.A. et al., 2019. Potential of Microalgae Carotenoids for Industrial Application. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 188(3), pp.602-634. doi: 10.1007/s12010-018-02945-4

Chitrakar, B., Zhang, M. & Bhandari, B., 2019. Edible flowers with the common name “marigold”: Their therapeutic values and processing. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 89, pp.76-87. doi: 10.1016/j.tifs.2019.05.008.

Chaudhary, P.H. et al., 2022. A Pharmacognosy, Ethanobotany and Phyto-pharmacology of Tagetes erecta Linn. GIS Science Journal, 9(6), pp.1375 – 1397. doi: 20.18001.GSJ. 2022.V9I6.22.39458

Chauhan, A.S. et al., 2022. Valorizations of Marigold Waste for High-Value Products and Their Industrial Importance: A Comprehensive Review. Resources, 11(10), 91. doi: 10.3390/resources11100091

Chaurasiya, R.J., 2020. Cultivation techniques of Marigold. Just Agriculture-multidisciplinary e newsletter, 1(3), 075.

Cunha, J.A.D. et al., 2016. Short communication: Toxicity of Tagetes minuta essential oil in silver catfish (Rhamdia queen). International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 8(6), pp.286-288.

Cornelius, W.W. & Wycliffe, W. 2016., Tagetes (Tagetes minuta) Oils. In Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and Safety. Academic Press, pp.791–802.

DaychoKhaenamkaew., 2021. The cultivation of marigolds: A Case study in the Thon Hong District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education, 12(6), pp.4443-4446. doi: 10.17762/turcomat.v12i6.8430

Devrnja, N. et al., 2022. UHPLC-OrbiTrap MS Characterization of Phenolic Profiles in French Marigold Extracts and Analysis of Their Antifeedant Activity against Colorado Potato Beetle. Plants, 11(3), 407. doi: 10.3390/plants11030407

Dou, J. et al., 2007. Identification and comparison of phenolic compounds in the preparation of oolong tea manufactured by semifermentation and drying processes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55, pp.7462–7468. doi: 10.1021/jf0718603.

Erdiansyah, I., Damanhuri. & Ningrum, D.R.K., 2019. The Application of Marigold Flower and Pintoi Peanuts on The Natural Enemies of Rice Plant at Antirogo Sub-District Jember Regency. El-Hayah ,7(3), pp.99-105. doi: 10.18860/elha.v7i3.10054

e Santos, P.C. et al., 2022. Insecticidal activity of Tagetes erecta and Tagetes patula extracts and fractions free and microencapsulated. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 45, 102511. doi: 10.1016/j.bcab.2022.102511.

Fabrick, J.A., Yool, A.J. & Spurgeon, D.W., 2020. Insecticidal activity of marigold Tagetes patula plants and foliar extracts against hemipteran pests, Lygus Hesperus and Bemisia tabaci. PLoS One, 15(5), e0233511. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0233511

Fauziana, M. & Susandarini, R., 2019. Species diversity and potential use of Asteraceae in Tawangmangu, Karanganyar Regency, Central Java. Journal of Tropical Biodiversity and Biotechnology, 4(1), pp.18. doi: 10.22146/jtbb.36652.

Fracassetti, D. et al., 2013. Ellagic acid derivatives, ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins and other phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of two powder products from camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia). Food Chemistry, 139, pp.578–588. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.01.121

Garcia, C.J. et al., 2016. Untargeted metabolomics approach using UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS to explore the metabolome of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce. Metabolomics, 12, 138. doi: 10.1007/s11306-016-1082-x

Gakuubi, M.M. et al., 2016. Bioactive properties of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) essential oils: A review. American Journal Essential oil and Natural Product, 4(2), pp.27-36.

Gupta, P. & Vasudeva, N., 2012. Marigold A potential ornamental plant drug. Hamdard Medicus, 55(1), pp.45-59.

Gupta, Y.C. et al., 2022. Marigold. In Floriculture and Ornamental Plants. Handbooks of Crop Diversity: Conservation and Use of Plant Genetic Resources. Singapore: Springer, pp.1–23.

Gras, A. et al., 2017. Medicinal plant uses and names from the herbarium of Francesc Bolos (1773–1844). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 204(1), pp.142-168. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.04.002

Gillij, V.G., Gleiser, R.M. & Zygadlo, J.A., 2008. Mosquito repellent activity of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina. Bioresource Technology, 99, pp.2507–2515. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2007.04.066

Hamaguchi, T. et al., 2019. Nematocidal actions of the marigold exudate α-therthienyl: oxidative stress-inducing compound penetrates nematode hypodermis. BiologyOpen. doi: 10.1242/bio.038646

Herman, R. A. et al., 2019. Essential oils and their application – A mini review. Advance in Nutrition and Food Science, 4 (4), pp.1-13. doi: 10.33140/anfs.04.04.08.

Ingkasupart, P. et al., 2015. Antioxidant activities and lutein content of 11 marigold cultivars (Tagetes spp.) grown in Thailand. Food Science and Technology, 35(2). doi: 10.1590/1678-457X.6663

Jan, G., Khan, M.A. & Jan, F., 2009. Medicinal value of the Asteraceae of dir kohistan valley, NWFP, Pakistan. Ethnobotanical leaflets, 2009(10), 1. https://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/ebl/vol2009/iss10/1

Jain, S. & Sing, M., 2021. Process optimization for micro-encapsulation of marigold colorant. The Pharma Innovation Journal, 10 (2).

Jayavant, T. K., 2018. Isolation and investigation of phytochemicals and pharmacological screening of Tagetes erecta L. leaves extract. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development, 6(4), pp.39-44. doi: 10.22270/ajprd.v6i4.360

Joshi, R.K. & Barbalho, S. M., 2022. Volatile Composition and Biological Activities of Tagetes (Marigold): An Overview. International J Pharmacognosy & Chinese Medicine, 1(6). doi: 10.23880/ipcm-16000226.

Kafaltiya, M. et al., 2019. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Tagetes patula L. during different phenological stages. Journal of Chemical Pharmaceutical Sciences, 12(04), pp.117-122. doi: 10.30558/jchps.20191204002

Kashif, M. et al., 2015. Cytotoxic and antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds from Tagetes patula flower. Pharmaceutical Biology, 53, pp.672–681. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2014.936471

Kijlstra, A. et al., 2012. Lutein: More than just a filter for blue light. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 31. doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2012.03.002.

Kimutai, A., Ngeiywa, M. & Mulaa, M, et al., 2017. Repellent effects of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Tagetes minuta on the sandfly, Phlebotomus duboscqi. BMC Research Notes, 10(1). doi: 10.1186/s13104-017-2396-0

Kumar, V. et al., 2019. Growth and flower yield attributes of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) as influenced by planting geometry and varieties. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 8(1), pp.819-822

Kumar, A. et al., 2020. Floral biology of wild marigold (Tagetes minuta L.) and its relation to essential oil composition. Industrial Crops and Product, 145. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2019.111996.

Kusuma, I.G.N.B.P.B. et al., 2020. Aktivitas Antioksidan dan Evaluasi Sensoris Teh Herbal Bunga Gumitir (Tagetes erecta L.). Jurnal Ilmiah Teknologi Pertanian Agrotechno, 5(2), pp.39-48. doi: 10.24843/JITPA.2020.v05.i02.p01

Kurniati, F., 2021. The potency of marigold flowers (Tagetes erecta L.) as one of the supporting components of agricultural development. Media Pertanian, 6, pp.22-29. doi: 10.37058/mp. v6i1.3010.

Khulbe, A., 2015. A review on Tagetes erecta. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(3), pp.645-649.

Kyarimpa, C.M. et al., 2014. Essential oil and composition of Tagetes minuta from Uganda. Larvicidal activity on Anopheles gambie. Industrial Crops and Products, 62. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.09.006.

Lee, J.H. et al., 2013. Identification, characterisation, and quantification of phenolic compounds in the antioxidant activity-containing fraction from the seeds of Korean perilla (Perilla frutescens) cultivars. Food Chemistry, 136, pp.843–852. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.08.057

Lenawaty, D.Y. et al., 2022. Increasing the diversity of marigold (Tagetes sp) by acute and chronic chemical induced mutation of EMS (Ethyl Methane Sulfonate). Biodiversitas, 23, pp.1399–1407. doi: 10.13057/biodiv/d230326

Llorent-Martínez, E.J., Gouveia, S.C. & Castilho, P.C., 2015. Analysis of phenolic compounds in leaves from endemic trees from Madeira Island. A contribution to the chemotaxonomy of Laurisilva forest species. Industrial Crop & Product, 64, pp.135–151. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.10.068

Maciel, M.A.M. et al., 2022. Medicinal plants: The need for multidisciplinary scientific studies. Química Nova, 25, pp.429–438. doi: 10.1590/S0100-40422002000300016

Manivannan, A., Narasegowda, S. & Prakash, T., 2021. Comparative study on color coordinates, phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and antioxidant potential of marigold (Tagetes sp.) with diverse colored petals. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 15, pp.4343–4353. doi: 10.1007/s11694-021-01015-4

Manzoor, S. et al., 2022. Green extraction of lutein from marigold flower petals, process optimization and its potential to improve the oxidative stability of sunflower oil. Ultrasonic Sonochemistry, 85, 105994. doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2022.105994

Marahatta, S.P. et al., 2012. Effects of Tagetes patula on active and inactive stages of root-knot nematodes. The Journal of Nematology, 44 (1).

Marini. et al., 2017. Repellent Potency of Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) Leaves Extract Againts Aedes aegypti Mosquito. BALABA, 14(1). doi: 10.22435/blb.v14i1.301.

Marotti, M. et al., 2004. Characterization and yield evaluation of essential oils from different tagetes species. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 16, pp.440–444.

Meyers, K.J., Swiecki, T.J. & Mitchell, A.E., 2006. Understanding the native Californian diet: Identification of condensed and hydrolyzable tannins in tanoak acorns (Lithocarpus densiflorus). Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 54, pp.7686–7691. doi: 10.1021/jf061264t.

Mir, R.A., Ahanger, M.A. & Agarwal, R.M., 2019. Marigold: From mandap to medicine and from ornamentation to remediation. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 10, pp.309-338. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2019.102024

Mlcek, J. & Rrop, O., 2011. Fresh edible flowers of ornamental plants - A new source of nutraceutical foods. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 22, pp.561-569. doi: 10.1016/j.tifs.2011.04.006

Moczkowska-Wyrwisz, M., Jastrzebska, D. & Wyrwisz, J., 2022. Application of New Sources of Bioactive Substances (Perilla frutescens L. and Tagetes erecta L.) in the Chosen Cookies Production. International Journal of Environment Research and Public Health, 19. doi: 10.3390/ijerph191811504

Mossa, A.T.H., 2016. Green pesticides: Essential oils as biopesticides in insect-pest management. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 9(5). doi: 10.3923/jest.2016.354.378

Munhoz, V.M. et al., 2014. Extraction of flavonoids from Tagetes patula: process optimization and screening for biological activity. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 24(5), pp. 576-583. doi: 10.1016/j.bjp.2014.10.001

Munif, A., Nursalim, M. & Pradana, A.P., 2021. The potential of endophytic bacteria isolated from Tagetes sp. to control Meloidogyne spp. Infection on tomato plants. Biodiversitas, 22, pp. 3229-3236. doi: 10.13057/biodiv/d220626

Nahak, G. & Sahu, R.K., 2017. Bio-controlling Effect of Leaf Extract of Tagetes patula L. (Marigold) on growth parameters and diseases of tomato. Pakistan Jornal of Biological Sciences, 20, pp.12-19. doi: 10.3923/pjbs.2017.12.19.

Nam, S. et al., 2021. Functional Characterization of Marigold Powder as a Food Ingredient for Lutein-Fortified Fresh Noodles. Applied Sciences, 11(2), 861. doi: 10.3390/app11020861

Navarro-González, I. et al., 2015. Nutritional composition and antioxidant capacity in edible flowers: characterisation of phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16. doi: 10.3390/ijms16010805.

Nikkon, F. et al., 2009. Insecticidal activity of flower of Tagetes erecta L. against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 5(5).

Nikkon, F. et al., 2011. Tagetes erecta Linn. and its Mosquitocidal potency against Culex quinquefasciatus. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 1, pp.186-188.

Nivsarkar, M., Cherian, B. & Padh, H., 2001. Alpha-terthienyl: A plant-derived new generation insecticide: Review article. Current Sciences, 18(6), pp.667-672.

Notes, I., Suyasa, I.N.G., & Sundari, C.D.W.H., 2013. Pemanfaatan daun dan akar tahikotok (Tagetes patula) sebagai insektisida nyamuk aedes aegypti. Jurnal skala husada, 10 (2).

Omer, E. A. et al., 2014. Some Biological Activities of Tagetes lucida Plant Cultivated in Egypt. Advances in Environmental Biology, 9(2), pp.82-88.

Olmedo, R. et al., 2015. Essential oil of Tagetes filifolia against the four beetle Tribolium castaneum and its relation to acetylcholinesterase activity and lipid peroxidation. Agriscientia, 32(2). pp.113-121.

Padalia, H. & Chanda, S., 2015. Antimicrobial efficacy of different solvent extracts of Tagetes erecta L. Flower, alone and in combination with antibiotics. Applied Microbiology, 1, 1000106. doi: 10.4172/2471-9315.1000106

Palacios-Landín, J. et al., 2015. In vitro and in vivo nematocidal activity of Allium sativum and Tagetes erecta extracts against Haemonchus contortus. Turkiye Parazitol Derg, 39(4), pp.260-264. doi: 10.5152/tpd.2015.4523.

Paniagua-Zambrana, N.Y. et al., 2020. Tagetes elliptica Sm. Tagetes erecta L. Tagetes filifolia Lag. Tagetes minuta L. Tagetes multiflora Kunth ASTERACEAE. In Ethnobotany of the Andes. Ethnobotany of Mountain Regions. Springer, Cham. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-77093-2_276-1

Parejo, I. et al., 2004. Characterization of acylated flavonoid-O-glycosides and methoxylated flavonoids from Tagetes maxima by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Communication in Mass Spectrometry, 18, pp.2801–2810. doi: 10.1002/rcm.1697.

Politi, F.A.S. et al., 2013. Chemical characterization and acaricide potential of essential oil from aerial parts of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae) against engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806). Parasitology Research, 112(6), pp.2261-2268. doi: 10.1007/s00436-013-3386-3.

Politi, F.A.S. et al., 2017. Insecticidal activity of an essential oil of Tagetes patula L. (asteraceae) on common bed bug Cimex lectularius L. And molecular docking of major compounds at the catalytic site of clache1. Parasitology Research, 116, pp.415–424. doi: 10.1007/s00436-016-5305-x

Ponkiya, N. et al., 2018. Development of economical mosquito repellent using marigold plant. International Journal for Research Trend and Innovation, 3(11), pp.47-54.

Priyanka, D., Shalini, T. & Navneet, V.K., 2013. A brief study on marigold (Tagetes species): A Review. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 4 (1), pp.43-48

Qinghu, W. et al., 2016. Anti-inflammatory Effects, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Identification and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Isolation of The Total flavonoids From Artemisia frigida. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 24, pp.85-391. doi: 10.1016/j.jfda.2015.11.004

Rajvanshi, S.K. & Dwivedi, D.H., 2017. Phytochemical screening studies of bioactive compounds of African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phythochemistry, 6(4) pp.524-527.

Ratananikom, K., Nasinporm, N. & Pongjongmit, T., 2021. Carotenoid Assessments and Antioxidant Activities from Flower Petals. HAYATI Journal of Biosciences, 29(1), pp.54-61. doi: 10.4308/hjb.29.1.54-61

Rhama, S. & Madhavan, S., 2011. Anti-bacterial activity of the flavonoid, patulitrin isolated from the flowers of Tagetes erecta L. International Journal of PharmaTech Research, 3(3), pp.1407-1409.

Reid, R.et al., 2016. Complementary medicine use by the Australian population: a critical mixed studies systematic review of utilisation, perceptions and factors associated with use. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 16, 176. doi: 10.1186/s12906-016-1143-8

Riaz et al., 2013. Effect of drought stress on growth and flowering of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.). Pakistan Journal of Botany, 45(S1), pp. 123-313.

Roman, S., Sanchez-Siles, L.M. & Siegrist M., 2017. The importance of food naturalness for consumers: Results of a systematic review. Trends in food science & technology, 67, pp.44-57. doi: 10.1016/j.tifs.2017.06.010

Rop, O. et al., 2012. J. Edible Flowers - A new promising source of mineral elements in human nutrition. Molecules, 17(12), pp.6672-6683. doi: 10.3390/molecules17066672

Salehi, B. et al., 2018. Review Tagetes spp. Essential oils and other extracts: Chemical Characterization and Biological activity. MDPI-Molecules, 23, 2847. doi: 10.3390/molecules23112847

Salinas-Sanchez, D.O. et al., 2012. Insecticidal Activity of Tagetes erecta Extracts on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Florida Entomologist, 95(2), pp.428-432. doi: 10.1653/024.095.0225.

Santos, I.C. & Reis, S.N., 2021. Review Article: Edible flowers: traditional and current use. Ornamental Horticulture, 27(4), pp.438-445. doi: 10.1590/2447-536X.v27i4.2392

Saputri, R.E., Hanafiah, D.S. & Setiado, H., 2021. Pengaruh pemberian kolkisin terhadap keragaman morfologi tanaman marigold (Tagetes erecta L.). Jurnal agroteknologi (Online), 9(2), pp.11-17. doi: 10.32734/jaet.v9i2.8583

Sathyanarayana, E., Kumar, A.L. & Naganna, R., 2018. Advances in Value Addition of Marigold. Kerala Karshakan, Department of Agriculture Development and Farmers Welfare Government of Kerala. India.

Sheoran, S., Beniwal, B.S. & Dalal, R., 2022. Floral and yield attributes of African marigold as influenced by pinching and gibberellic acid in different seasons. The Pharma Innovation International Journal, 11(1), pp.937-946.

Sharifi-Rad, J.et al., 2017. Medicinal plants used in the treatment of tuberculosis—Ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological approaches. Biotechnology Journal, S0734-9750(17)30077-0. doi: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.07.001

Sharifi-Rad, M. et al., 2018a. Pulicaria vulgaris gaertn. Essential oil: An alternative or complementary treatment for leishmaniasis. Cell and Molecular Biology, 64, pp.18–21. doi: 10.14715/cmb/2018.64.8.3

Sharifi-Rad, M. et al., 2018b. Matricaria genus as a source of antimicrobial agents: From farm to pharmacy and food applications. Microbiological Research, 215, pp.76–88. doi: 10.1016/j.micres.2018.06.010

Sharma, S. & Kumari, K., 2021. An overview on Calendula Officinalis Linn.: (Pot Marigold). Journal of Advanced Scientific Research, 12(3), pp.13-18. doi: 10.55218/JASR.s2202112302

Silveira, L.C.P. et al., 2009. Marigold (Tagetes erecta) as an attractive crop to natural enemies in onion fields. Scientia Agricola (Piracicaba, Braz.), 66(6), pp.780-787.

Singh, Y., Gupta, A. & Kannojia, P., 2020. Tagetes erecta (Marigold) – A review on its phytochemical properties. Current Medicine and Drug Research, 4(1).

Singh, P. et al., 2015. Chemistry and biology of industrial crop Tagetes Species: A review. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 28(1), pp.1-14. doi: 10.1080/10412905.2015.1076740

Shetty, L.J., Harikiran, H. & Fernandes, J., 2009. Pharmacological evaluation of ethanolic extract of flowers of Tagetes erecta on epilepsy. Journal of Pharmacy Research, 2(6), pp.1035 – 38.

Shetty, L.J. et al., 2015. A brief review on medicinal plant Tagetes erecta Linn. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 5 (3), pp. 91-95. doi: 10.7324/JAPS.2015. 510.S16

Shinta, N.P.M.A., 2020. Repellent Activity Test of Ethanol Extract of Marigold (Tagetes erecta) Against Aedes aegypti Mosquito. Pharmauho: Jurnal Farmasi, Sains, dan Kesehatan, 6(2), pp.54-65. doi: 10.33772/pharmauho.v6i2.13339

Stroze, C.T. et al., 2019. Tagetes minuta propagation and interaction with Nematoide. Journal of Agricultural Science, 11(1), pp.139-148. doi: 10.5539/jas.v11n1p139.

Son, H.N., Chi, D.T.L. & Kingsbury, A., 2019. Indigenous knowledge and climate change adaptation of ethnic minorities in the mountainous regions of Vietnam: A case study of the Yao people in Bac Kan Province. Agricultural Systems, 176, 102683. doi: 10.1016/j.agsy.2019.102683.

Szarka, S.Z. et al., 2007. Investigation of volatile compounds in tagetes species. Russian Academic of Sciences, Moscow, 35, pp.34-37.

The Plant List, 2013, Version 1.1., viewed 20 July 2022, from http://www.theplantlist.org/.

Tiwari, A. et al., 2016. Essential oil composition of African marigold (Tagetes minuta L.) harvested at different growth stages in foothills agroclimatic conditions of North India. American Journal Essential Oils and Natural Products, 4(3), 04-07.

Toliba, A.O. et al., 2018. Physicochemical properties and food application of marigold flower extract prepared by conventional and supercritical CO2 methods. International Journal of Advanced Research, 6(10), pp. 876-885. doi: 10.21474/IJAR01/7883

Tripathi, B. et al., 2012. Chemical composition and evaluation of tagetes erecta (var. Pusa narangi genda) essential oil for its antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Biopesticides International, 8(2), pp.138-146.

Tuna, S. et al., 2021. Investigation of Tagetes erecta L. extract as a natural solution to vaginitis problems. Academica Journal of Medicinal Plants., 9(4), pp.048-054. doi: 10.15413/ajmp.2021.0100

Verma, P. & Verma, A., 2012. Evaluation of anti-bacterial activity of different parts of Tagetes erecta. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences, 3(6), pp.1766-1768.

Vazquez, A.M. et al., 2011. Phytochemistry of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) from Córdoba, Argentina: Comparative study between essential oil and HS-SPME analyses. Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, 10(4), pp.351-362

Wardana, R., Erdiyansyah, I. & Putri, S.U., 2017. Presistensi Hama (Pemanfaatan Tanaman Refugia Sebagai Sistem Pengendali Hama Padi) Pada Kelompok Tani Suren Jaya 01, Kecamatan Ledokombo. Seminar Nasional Hasil Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat, pp.233–237.

Wanzala, W. & Ogoma, S.B., 2013. Chemical composition and mosquito repellency of essential oil of Tagetes minuta from the Southern slopes of Mount Elgon in Western Kenya. Journal of Essential Oil Bearings Plants, 16(2), pp.216-232. doi: 10.1080/0972060X.2013.793975

Wardani, F.S., Leksono, A.S. & Yanuwiadi, B., 2013. Efek Blok Refugia (Ageratum conyzoides, Ageratum houstonianum, Commelina diffusa) terhadap pola Kunjungan Arthropoda di Perkebunan apel Desa Poncokusumo, Malang. Jurnal Biotropika, 1(4), pp.134–138.

Wang, X.F. et al., 2018. Anti-inflammatory constituents from Perilla frutescens on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Fitoterapia, 130, pp.61–65. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2018.08.006

Welz, A.N., Emberger-Klein, A. & Menrad, K., 2018. Why people use herbal medicine: insights from a focus-group study in Germany. BMC Complement Alternative Medicine, 18(1), 92. doi: 10.1186/s12906-018-2160-6

Wu, D. et al., 2023. A research of marigold flavonoids from marigold residues. Industrial Crops and Products, 191, Part A. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2022.115898.

Yanti, G.A.K.D.P., Wartini, N.M. & Antara, N.S., 2019. Pengaruh Ukuran Partikel dan Suhu Ekstraksi Terhadap Karakteristik Ekstrak Pewarna Alami Bunga Kenikir (Tagetes erecta L.). Iptekma: Jurnal Mahasiswa Universitas Udayana, 8(2), pp.17-24.

Zanovello, M. et al., 2021. Tagetes erecta L. flowers, a medicinal plant traditionally used to promote diuresis, induced diuretic and natriuretic effects in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 279, 114393. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2021.114393

Zulfikar., Khairunnisa. & Yasir., 2019. Effect of marigold flower (Tagetes erecta) leaves extract on the Aedes aegypti larva mortality rate. SEL Jurnal Penelitian Kesehatan, 6(2), pp.66-73

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jtbb.85079

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 214 | views : 73


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Tropical Biodiversity and Biotechnology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Editoral address:

Faculty of Biology, UGM

Jl. Teknika Selatan, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia

ISSN: 2540-9581 (online)