Bioactivity and Metabolites Compounds of Medicinal Plants Endophytic Fungi in Indonesia

https://doi.org/10.22146/jtbb.79070

Eka Sukmawaty(1), Abdul Karim(2), Zarsawaty dwyana(3), Hasnah Natsir(4), Harningsih Karim(5), Ahyar Ahmad(6*)

(1) Doctoral Program, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Hasanuddin University, 90245, Makassar, Indonesia; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, UIN Alauddin Makassar, 92118, Makassar, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Hasanuddin University, 90245, Makassar, Indonesia
(3) Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Hasanuddin University, 90245, Makassar, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Hasanuddin University, 90245, Makassar, Indonesia
(5) Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy YAMASI, Makassar, Indonesia
(6) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Hasanuddin University, 90245, Makassar, Indonesia; Research and Development Centre for Biopolymers and Bioproducts; LPPM, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar-90245, Indonesia; Research Collaboration Center for KARST Microbes BRIN-LPPM, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar-90245, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Indonesia is rich in diversity of medicinal plants, vital in traditional medicine and the pharmaceutical industry. However, overharvesting, along with population growth, land use changes, deforestation, and climate change, endanger these plants. This review investigates the potential of endophytic endosymbiont as an alternative. These endosymbionts can synthesise bioactive compounds similar to those found in medicinal plants.  This study compiled data from various sources on endophytic fungi and their bioactivity. The review aims to categorise Indonesian medicinal plants, to identify their associated endophytic fungi from different plant parts, and to assess their bioactivity. The results revealed numerous medicinal plant families and a variety of endophytic fungi isolated from fruits, leaves, twigs, bark, roots, and rhizomes. These fungi exhibited bioactivities, including antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial effects, with metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, peptides, phenols, polyketides, quinones, steroids, and terpenoids. Fusarium and Colletotrichum were the most common endophytic fungi found. Notably, the biological activity was consistent among endophytic fungi from various host organs, but variations were observed according to the host's geographical origin. This suggests that Indonesia's diverse geography influences metabolite production and activity. However, the same host plant may harbour different species in distinct organs. These findings indicate that endophytic fungi within medicinal plants represent a promising source of bioactive compounds for future Indonesian medicine production. Future research should explore metabolite compounds and bioactivity across different geographical regions.

 


Keywords


Anticancer; Antimicrobe; Antioxidant; Endosymbiont microbes; Traditional medicine

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jtbb.79070

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