Advancement in Plant Tissue Culture-Based Research for Sustainable Exploitation of Well-Known Medicinal Herb Bacopa Monnieri

Abhijith Vinod(1), Shivika Sharma(2), Vikas Sharma(3*)

(1) Department of Molecular Biology & Genetic Engineering, School of Bioengineering and Biosciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-Jalandhar, India.
(2) Biochemical Conversion Division, SSSNIBE-Kapurthala Punjab.
(3) Department of Molecular Biology & Genetic Engineering, School of Bioengineering and Biosciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara-Jalandhar, India.
(*) Corresponding Author


The current review focuses on the plant Bacopa monnieri, one of prominent medical herbs in Indian ayurvedic system. The plant is well known for its cognitive and memory enhancing capabilities. The plant contains many useful alkaloids and secondary metabolites. Studies have shown that it has various promising pharmacological properties which have the potential to treat many illnesses and disorders such as asthma, bronchitis, rheumatism also in for renal disease, water retention, blood cleaning etc. This leads to the over exploitation of the plant which puts a stress on the naturally available stock of the plant, therefore, it becomes a necessity to find optimum methods for mass production of the plant and its important secondary metabolites. This review attempts to compile and to discuss the advancements in methods and techniques including type of culture vessels, plant growth regulators (PGRs), effect of stress, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) interactions; for in vitro propagation of Bacopa monnieri and the enhanced production of its important bioactive (bacoside) for its sustainable exploitation.



micropropagation, Bacopa, PGPRs, bacoside, callogenesis

Full Text:



Ahemad, M. & Kibret, M., 2014. Mechanisms and applications of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: Current perspective. Journal of King Saud University - Science, 26(1), pp.1-20. doi: 10.1016/j.jksus.2013.05.001

Ahmed, R., 1993. 'Medicinal Plants Used in SM--Their Procurement, Cultivation, Regeneration, and Import/Export Aspects--A Report', New Delhi: Today and Tomorrow Publishers and Printer.

Ali, D., Alarifi, S. & Pandian, A., 2020. Somatic embryogenesis and in vitro plant regeneration of Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Wettst., a potential medicinal water hyssop plant. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, October, 28(1), pp.353-359. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.10.013

Ashraf, M. Y. & Bhatti, A., 2000. Effect of salinity on growth and chlorophyll content of rice. Pak J Sci Ind Res, Volume 43, pp. 130-131.

Bansal, M., Reddy, M.S. & Kumar, A., 2016. Seasonal variations in harvest index and bacoside A contents amongst accessions of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. collected from wild populations. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 22(3), pp. 407-413. doi: 10.1007/s12298-016-0366-y

Behera, S. et al., 2015. An efficient micropropagation protocol of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell through two-stage culture of nodal segments and ex vitro acclimatization. Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology, 3(03), pp.016-021. doi: 10.7324/JABB.2015.3304

Bhanja, T. et al., 2007. Comparative profiles of alpha-amylase production in conventional tray reactor and GROWTEK bioreactor. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 30(5), pp.369-76. doi: 10.1007/s00449-007-0133-0

Bharti, N. et al., 2012. Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans, a halotolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, improves yield and content of secondary metabolites in Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell under primary and secondary salt stress. World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 29, pp.379-387. doi: 10.1007/s11274-012-1192-1

Bhattacharyya, P.N. & Jha, D.K., 2012. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): emergence in agriculture. World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 28(4), pp.1327-50. doi: 10.1007/s11274-011-0979-9

Bhusari, S., Wanjari, R. & Khobragade, P., 2013. Cost Effective In vitro Clonal proagation of Bacopa monnieri L. Penell. International Journal of Indigenous Medicinal Plants, 146(2), pp.1239–1244.

Bone, K., 1996. Clinical applications of Ayurvedic and Chinese herbs: monographs for the western herbal practitioner. Queensland, Australia: Physiotherapy press.

Bose, J., Bose, J. & Rodrigo-Moreno, A., 2014. ROS homeostasis in halophytes in the context of salinity stress tolerance. J Exp Bot, 65, pp.1241-1257. doi: 10.1093/jxb/ert430

Channa, S. et al., 2006. Anti-inflammatory activity of Bacopa monniera in rodents. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 104(1-2), pp.286-289. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.10.009

Chatterji, N., Rastogi, R. & Dhar, M., 1965. Chemical examination of Bacopa monniera Wettst: part II—the constitution of bacoside A. Indian journal of chemistry, 3, pp.24-30.

Chaudhry, B. et al., 2019. Micropropagation of a medicinally important plant: Bacopa monnieri. Medicinal Plants- International Journal of Phytomedicines and Related Industries, 11(2), pp.177-182. doi: 10.5958/0975-6892.2019.00022.4

Chopra, R.N., Nayar, S.L. & Chopra, I.C., 1956. Glossary of Indian medicinal plants. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, p. 32.

Debnath, M., 2008. Responses of Bacopa monnieri to salinity and drought stress in vitro. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 2(11), pp.347-351.

Dixit, H. & Thakur, A., 2017. In vitro propagation of a medicinal important plant Bacopa monnieri from nodal explants. Indian Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Biotechnology, 5(1), pp.1-4.

Dogan, M., 2020. Effect of salt stress on in vitro organogenesis from nodal explant of Limnophila aromatica (Lamk.) Merr. and Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. and their physio-morphological and biochemical responses. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 26(4), pp.803-816. doi: 10.1007/s12298-020-00798-y

Fadel, D. et al., 2010. Effect of Different Strength of Medium on Organogenesis, Phenolic Accumulation and Antioxidant Activity of Spearmint (Mentha spicata l.). The Open Horticulture Journal, 3, pp. 31-35. doi: 10.2174/1874840601003010031

Gupta, P. et al., 2014. Effect of Cadmium on Growth, Bacoside A, and Bacopaside I of Bacopa monnieri (L.), a Memory Enhancing Herb. Scientific World Journal, 2014, 824586. doi: 10.1155/2014/824586

Gupta, et al., 2017. Microbial modulation of bacoside A biosynthetic pathway and systemic defense mechanism in Bacopa monnieri under Meloidogyne incognita stress. Scientific Reports, 7(1). doi: 10.1038/srep41867

Singh, H.K. & Dhawan, B.N., 1982. Effect of Bacopa monniera Linn. (Brāhmi) extract on avoidance responses in rat. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 5(2), pp.205-214. doi: 10.1016/0378-8741(82)90044-7

Hegazi, G.A.E.M., 2016. In vitro Preservation of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell as a Rare Medicinal Plant in Egypt. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 6(12), pp. 35-43.

Jain, N., Sharma, V. & Ramawat, K.G., 2012. Shoot culture of Bacopa monnieri: standardization of explant, vessels and bioreactor for growth and antioxidant capacity. An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology, 18(2), pp.185-190. DOI: 10.1007/s12298-012-0103-0

Jain, R., Prasad, B. & Jain, M., 2013. In- vitro regeneration of Bacopa monnieri (L.): A highly valuable medicinal plant. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci, 2(12), pp.198-205.

Joshi, A.G. et al., 2010. High frequency of shoot regeneration on leaf explants of Bacopa monnieri. Environmental and Experimental Biology, Volume 8, pp.81-84.

Kamenickà, A. & Rypák, M., 1989. The regeneration of Actinidia chinesis Pl. cultured in vitro. Polnohospodarvo, Volume 35, pp.811-818.

Khan, M. Y. et al., 2009. Recent advances in medicinal plant biotechnology. Indian Journal of Biotechnology, 08, pp.9-22.

Kohler, J., Caravaca, F. & Roldán, A., 2010. An AM fungus and a PGPR intensify the adverse effects of salinity on the stability of rhizosphere soil aggregates of Lactuca sativa. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 42(3), pp.429-44. doi: 10.1016/J.SOILBIO.2009.11.021

Koul, A. et al., 2014. Cost Effective Protocol for Micropropagation of Bacopa Monnieri Using Leaf Explants. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 3(4), pp.210-212.

Koul, A. et al., 2015. Regenerative potential and phytochemical diversity among five accessions of bacopa monnieri (l.) Wettst. International journal of pharma and bio sciences, 6, pp. 746-756.

Kumari, R., 2019. Induction of callus from different explants of bacopa monnieri and effect of adjuvant on the growth rate of the calli. Indian Journal of Scientific Research, 10(1), pp. 113. doi:10.32606/IJSR.V10.I1.00017

Mathew, J. et al., 2010. Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A for ameliorating epilepsy associated behavioral deficits. Fitoterapia, 81(5), pp.315-322. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2009.11.005

Murashige, T. & Skoog, F., 1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue culture. Physiol Plant, 15, pp.473-497. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1962.tb08052.x

Nagella, P. et al., 2009. In vitro regeneration of brahmi shoots using semisolid and liquid cultures and quantitative analysis of bacoside A. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 31(4), pp.723-728. doi: 10.1007/s11738-009-0284-5

Naik, P.M. et al., 2014. Rapid one step protocol for in vitro regeneration of bacopa monnieri (L.). Journal of Cell and Tissue Research, 14(2), pp.4293-4296.

Pandiyan, P. & Selvaraj, T., 2012. In vitro multiplication of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell from shoot tip and nodal explants. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 8(3), pp.1099-1108.

Patra, N. & Srivastava, A.K., 2016. Artemisinin production by plant hairy root cultures in gas- and liquid-phase bioreactors. Plant Cell Reports, 35, pp.143–153. doi: 10.1007/s00299-015-1875-9

Patra, N. et al., 2018. Statistical optimization for enhanced bacoside A production in plant cell cultures of Bacopa monnieri. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, 133, pp.20-214. doi: 10.1007/s11240-017-1373-6

Phrompittayarat, W. et al., 2011. Influence of seasons, different plant parts, and plant growth stages on saponin quantity and distribution in Bacopa monnieri. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 33(2), pp.193-199.

Rahe, M. A. et al., 2020. In vitro Micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Penn. - An Important Medicinal Plant. Plant Tissue Cult. & Biotech., 30(1), pp.57-63. doi: 10.3329/ptcb.v30i1.47791

Rao, R. V. et al., 2012. Ayurvedic medicinal plants for Alzheimer's disease: a review. Alzheimer's Research &, 4(3), 22. doi: 10.1186/alzrt125

Rout, J. R. et al., 2011. Standardization of an efficient protocol for in vitro clonal propagation of Bacopa monnieri L. - an important medicinal plant. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 7(2), pp. 289-299.

Saha, P.S. et al., 2020. In Vitro Propagation, Phytochemical and Neuropharmacological Profiles of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst.: A Review. Plants, 9(4), 411. doi: 10.3390/plants9040411

Santos, C.V., 2004. Regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis and degradation by salt stress in sunflower leaves. Scientia Horticulturae, 103(1), pp.93-99. doi: 10.1016/j.scienta.2004.04.009

Sape, S.T., Kandukuri, A.V., Owk, A.K., 2020. Direct axillary shoot regeneration with nodal explants of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell – A MULTI MEDICINAL HERB. Journal of AppliedBiologicalSciences, 14(2), pp.190-197.

Seth, B. et al., 2020. Statistical optimization of bacoside A biosynthesis in plant cell suspension cultures using response surface methodology. 3 Biotech, 10(6), 264. doi: 10.1007/s13205-020-02258-6

Sharma, M. et al., 2014. Enhanced bacoside production in shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri under the influence of abiotic elicitors. Natural Product Research, 29(8), pp.745-749. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2014.986657

Sharma, M. et al., 2015. Bacoside biosynthesis during in vitro shoot multiplication in Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. grown in Growtek and air lift bioreactor. Indian Journal of Biotechnology, 14, pp.547-551.

Sharma, N., Singh, R. & Pandey, R., 2016. In Vitro Propagation and Conservation of Bacopa monnieri L.. In: Protocols for In vitro Cultures and Secondary Metabolites Analysis of Aromatic and Medicinal Plants. New York: Springer, pp.153-171. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3332-7

Sharma, M. et al., 2018. Scaling up of Protocol for in vitro Multiplication and Conservation of Elite Genotype of Bacopa monnieri L. Pennell. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7(10), pp.3225-3236. doi: 10.20546/ijcmas.2018.710.374

Sheikh, S.S., Dakhane, V.P. & Chaudhary, A.D., 2015. Callus Induction in Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) Pennell by Nodal, Internodal, Young and Mature Leaf Explants. International Journal of Research In Biosciences, Agriculture & Technology, Special Issue 1, pp.101-108.

Singh, H. & Dhawan, B., 1997. Neuropsychopharmacological effects of the Ayurvedic nootropic Bacopa monniera Linn. (Brahmi). Indian J Pharmacol, 29, pp.359-365.

Sivaramakrishna, C. et al., 2005. Triterpenoid glycosides from Bacopa monnieri. Phytochemistry, 66(23), pp.2719-2728. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.09.016

Trejo-Tapia, G., Arias-Castro, C. & Rodríguez-Mendiola, M., 2003. Influence of the culture medium constituents and inoculum size on the accumulation of blue pigment and cell growth of Lavandula spica. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 72, pp.7-12. doi: 10.1023/A:1021270907918

Umesh, T.G., Sharma, A. & Rao, N.N., 2014. Regeneration potential and major metabolite analysis in nootropic plant bacopa monnieri (l.) Pennell. Asian J Pharm Clin Res, 7(1), pp.134-136.

Walker, V. et al., 2011. Host plant secondary metabolite profiling shows a complex, strain-dependent response of maize to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria of the genus Azospirillum. New Phytol, 189(2), pp. 494-506. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03484.x

Weathers, P.J. et al., 2004. Alteration of biomass and artemisinin production in Artemisia annua hairy roots by media sterilization method and sugars. Plant Cell Reports, 23(6), pp.414–418.

Wu, C.H. et al., 2006. Optimization of culturing conditions for the production of biomass and phenolics from adventitious roots of Echinacea angustifolia. Journal of Plant Biology, 49, pp.193-199. doi: 10.1007/BF03030532


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 187 | views : 104


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tropical Biodiversity and Biotechnology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Editoral address:

Faculty of Biology, UGM

Jl. Teknika Selatan, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia

ISSN: 2540-9581 (online)