Essential Oils of Etlingera acanthodes A.D. Poulsen, An Endemic Ginger from Sulawesi Island

Hurria Hurria(1), Anggra Alfian(2*), Muhammad Fajri Ramadhan Muslim Saleh(3), Heder Djamaludin(4), Murni Mursyid(5), Witno Witno(6), Asri Subkhan Mahulette(7)

(1) Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health, Universitas Muhammadiyah Palopo, Kota Palopo, 91922
(2) Faculty of Engineering, Agriculture and Marine, Universitas Muhammadiyah Palopo, Kota Palopo, 91922; Aksi Konservasi Celebica, Kota Palopo, 91926
(3) Aksi Konservasi Celebica, Kota Palopo, 91926; Biology Department, Tadulako University, Kota Palu, 94118
(4) Fisheries Product Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Brawijaya University, Malang, 65145
(5) Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health, Universitas Muhammadiyah Palopo, Kota Palopo, 91922
(6) Aksi Konservasi Celebica, Kota Palopo, 91926; Department of Forestry, Andi Djemma University, Palopo 91911, South Sulawesi, Indonesia, Kota Palopo, 91911
(7) Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Pattimura University, Kota Ambon, 97233
(*) Corresponding Author


Etlingera acanthodes A.D. Poulsen is a ginger endemic to Sulawesi, and there is no research on its essential oils. The Essential oil information of E. acanthodes is the first reported and has a high novelty. The objective of the study is to analyze the component of E. acanthodes essential oils, which are endemic to Sulawesi. The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves, stems, flowers, and rhizomes of E. acanthodes A.D. Poulsen. The samples were analyzed by GC-MS method using the Agilent Technologies 7890 Gas Chromatograph with Auto Sampler. Data analysis of essential oils of GC-MS results were determined based on comparing mass spectra from the NIST 2005 v.2.0 library and Wiley 7 library 2003. The oils of E. acanthodes contain terpenoids, phenolic, steroids, and other compounds. Phenolic compounds (39.56%) predominate in leaves, other compounds (41.25%) on stems, diterpenes hydrocarbons (77.3%) in flowers, and other compounds (43.5%) and steroids (40.4%) on rhizomes. The five main compounds of E. acanthodes are Neophytadiene; (+)-De-O-Methylcentrolobine; Cholest-5-En-3-Ol,23-Ethyl-,(3. Beta.23S)-; 9,12-Octadecadienoic Acid, Phenol, 2-ethyl-. The analysis found several compounds that can be used for industry and medicine in the future. 



Etlingera acanthodes; Essential oils; GC-MS; Compound

Full Text:



Ambarwati, K., Jannah, M. & Adawiyah, A.R., 2019. Analisis gama – sitosterol pada ficus carica sebagai prediksi aktivitas apoptosis pada sel hela. Jurnal Bidang Ilmu Kesehatan, 9(2), pp.191–195.

Antwi, A. O. et al., 2017. Stigmasterol inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced innate immune responses in murine models. International Immunopharmacology, 53, pp.105–113. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2017.10.018

Ardiyani, M. et al., 2020. Etlingera tjiasmantoi (zingiberaceae), a new species from central Central Sulawesi. Reinwardtia, 19(2), pp.103–108. doi: 10.14203/reinwardtia.v19i2.3972

Chan, E.W. et al., 2011. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Alpinia galanga, Curcuma longa, and Etlingera elatior (Zingiberaceae). Pharmacognosy Journal, 3(22), pp.54–61. doi: 10.5530/pj.2011.22.11

Daniel-Jambun, D. et al., 2019. Bactericidal and cytotoxic activity of a diarylheptanoid (etlingerin) isolated from a ginger (Etlingera pubescens) endemic to Borneo. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 127, pp.59–67. doi: 10.1111/jam.14287

Hossain, M. A. et al., 2012. Constituents of the essential oil from different brands of Syzigium caryophyllatum L. by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, pp.1446–1449. doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60435-3

Jilani, T. & Iqbal, M.P., 2018. Vitamin E deficiency in South Asian population and the therapeutic use of alpha-tocopherol (Vitamin E) for correction of anemia. Pak J Med Sci., 34(6), pp.1571–1575.

Juwita, T., Puspitasari, I. M. & Levita, J., 2018. Torch ginger (Etlingera elatior): a review on its botanical aspects, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 21(4), pp.151–165. doi: 10.3923/pjbs.2018.151.165

Kangsamaksin, T. et al., 2017. Lupeol and stigmasterol suppress tumor angiogenesis and inhibit cholangiocarcinoma growth in mice via downregulation of tumor necrosis factor-α. Plos One, 12(12), e0189628.

Kannan, S., Makam, L. & Kolarath, R., 2020. Evaluation of (Z)-9-tricosene pheromone and food bait for house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) attraction using Domo trap. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 8(5), pp.1071–1074.

Krajarng, A., Chulasiri, M. & Watanapokasin, R., 2017. Etlingera elatior extract promotes cell death in B16 melanoma cells via down-regulation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 17(1), 415. doi: 10.1186/s12906-017-1921-y

Mahdavi, B., Yaacob, W.A. & Din, L.B., 2017. Chemical composition, antioxidant, and antibacterial activity of essential oils from Etlingera sayapensis A.D. Poulsen & Ibrahim Behnam. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 10, pp.819–826. doi: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.08.006

Mahdawi, B. et al., 2016. Chemical composition, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities of essential oils from Etlingera brevilabrum Valeton. Record of Natural Product, 10, pp.22–31.

Pitopang, R. et al., 2019. Diversity of Zingiberaceae and traditional uses by three indigenous groups at Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. IOP Conf. Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series, 1242, 012039. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1242/1/012039

Poulsen, A., 2012. Etlingera of Sulawesi. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu.

Poulsen, A.D. & Docot, R.V.A., 2018. How many species of etlingera (zingiberaceae) are there in the Philippines? Edinburgh Journal of Botany, 76(1), 33-44. doi: 10.1017/S0960428618000240

Ribeiro-santos, R. et al., 2017. Essential oils for food application: natural substances with established biological activities. Food Bioprocess Technol, 11, pp.43–71. doi: 10.1007/s11947-017-1948-6

Srisook, E. et al., 2017. Anti-inflammatory effect of Etlingera pavieana (Pierre ex Gagnep.) R.M.Sm. rhizomal extract and its phenolic compounds in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Phcog Mag, 13, pp.230–235. doi: 10.4103/

Tadtong, S. et al., 2014. Antimicrobial activities of essential oil from Etlingera punicea rhizome. J Health Res., 23(2), pp.77–79.

Ud-Daula, A.F.M.S. & Basher, M.A., 2019. Genus Etlingera - A review on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 13(7), pp.135–156. doi: 10.5897/JMPR2019.6740

Wenqiang, G. et al., 2007. Comparison of essential oils of clove buds extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide and other three traditional extraction methods. Food Chemistry, 101, pp.1558–1564. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.04.009

Wong, K.C. et al., 2010. Essential oils of Etlingera elatior (Jack) R. M. Smith and Etlingera littoralis (Koenig) Giseke. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 22(5), pp.461–466. doi: 10.1080/10412905.2010.9700372


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1565 | views : 1161


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Tropical Biodiversity and Biotechnology

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Editoral address:

Faculty of Biology, UGM

Jl. Teknika Selatan, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, 55281, Indonesia

ISSN: 2540-9581 (online)